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  1. Because the quoting isn't paraphrastic. It's too close to the original. There's a lot of lengthy quoting that is word for word. Another thing that is striking is that there are many complex differences between King James and Book of Mormon readings. This means that Joseph Smith would have had to dictate from a Bible that had been carefully prepared beforehand. That would have taken a not insignificant amount of prep time. There would also have had to be careful preparation by Joseph Smith in order to insert the 36 longer quotes at the right places. But the manuscripts and the dictation witnesses agree that a Bible was not used by Joseph Smith to dictate the biblical quoting passages.
  2. There is little point in analyzing biblical quoting in the Book of Mormon atomistically, such as considering the quote from Mark 16 in isolation. I use the term "quoting" advisedly, because that's what a holistic analysis of the matter indicates, that the Book of Mormon quotes from the King James Bible, and a later one at that (i.e. not a 1611 Bible). Yet bear in mind that it neither quotes the King James Bible verbatim nor renders it paraphrastically, but in between, in such a way that it rules out Joseph Smith's reading from a Bible or his calling on eidetic imagery or his altering the text paraphrastically from a biblically saturated memory. Skousen and I have analyzed all 36 of the lengthy biblical quotes for the critical text volume KJQ, available through BYU Studies. All of the evidence – including from the two manuscripts and from various dictation witnesses as well as that of a lexical and syntactic nature – suggest that the quotes were transmitted to Joseph Smith just like the rest of the approx. 270,000 words were: word for word. Any deviations from what the Lord transmitted to Joseph Smith in the spring of 1829 are merely cases of inadvertent departures from the intended text, despite the incorporation of many of the infelicities of the 1611 King James Bible. Sadly, too much of the criticism of King James usage in the Book of Mormon found in the literature derives from non-thorough analysis. The same thing goes for its English usage. Better to consider the fairly thorough work found in the pages of critical text project publications than the musings of dilettantes, some with axes to grind.
  3. Long Covid sufferers may need to work with doctors who are experts in elimination diets, transitioning into elimination diets and how to carry them out effectively and safely. Judy Cho is one doctor I can think of off the top of my head who is an expert in this. Achieving and sustaining excellent metabolic health is very important for anyone to be able to survive potential Covid infections going forward.
  4. There is plenty of inaccurate information in the literature about biblical quoting in the Book of Mormon. In general, researchers in this domain have been willing to cherry-pick and speculate without doing the necessary preliminary work of thorough textual comparison and analysis. The wording of the biblical quotations in the Book of Mormon is neither paraphrastic nor a close copy of the King James passages. This rules out revealed ideas or the use of a Bible or even what I regard as a fanciful crutch, eidetic imagery. Bible use isn't supported by any known witness. Chapter divisions were ignored and cannot be discerned in the manuscripts. There are 36 identifiable sections of the Book of Mormon that quote substantial portions of the King James Bible (with matching n-grams of n ≥ 16, requiring at a minimum clause-level matching). These sections do so in a way that strongly favors the view that the quotations were the result of revealed words. In other words, a pre-edited, mostly King James text was transmitted to Joseph Smith, with many KJV infelicities intact.
  5. Overall, Doctrine and Covenants language is a better fit with 1600s usage, not 1700s usage. Relevant to this is that "strong drinks" referring to higher alcohol content drinks was a more common phrase in the 1600s than in the 1700s. (Consider also verse 17: "and barley for all useful animals, and for mild drinks, as also other grain.") Now we come to an interesting possibility. Hot drinks could also mean strong drinks in the 1600s. Perhaps the use in D&C 89 is a second repeat, to emphasize the point. Maybe it doesn't refer to hot temperature, but to the fact that "hot" drinks can "make our wits to dance" (1607). (The general consensus among LDS scholars, that Joseph Smith worded Doctrine and Covenants revelations, is received wisdom, not based on syntactic comparisons, so it's suspect. I find a variety of usage in the revelations that seems unlikely for him to have worded under revelation, based on comparative studies with his own writings and pseudo-archaic texts and the textual record.)
  6. https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/ensign/1997/02/when-our-children-go-astray?lang=eng
  7. Is it unrighteous to have lower human populations rather than higher populations? Won't mammals be pressured less with lower population levels and won't species extinction proceed at a lower rate?
  8. It seems that no matter the population trend, we can count on authors to write that the trend is dire. Isn't one of the main reasons governments incentivize population growth because they have put in place entitlement Ponzi programs that demand growing populations?
  9. This next one also turns out to be an old meaning, and it is not in any previous write-ups on obsolete lexical meaning in the Book of Mormon. So there might be others out there that haven't yet been found. But it is increasingly difficult to find them. This is the only time the verb grant is used with a following infinitive in the Book of Mormon. The verb does not have its usual meaning. Here it means 'agree', in the context of agreeing to Moroni's request. Notice that the last quote with an infinitive is Caxton (it's def. 1 in the OED), and the last example is from Shakespeare, before major American colonization. There are other very early ones like this, enough for the reasonable to dismiss the idea that all this older meaning was around in Joseph Smith's environment. (Alma 54:20) Nevertheless I will grant to exchange prisoners according to your request gladly, that I may preserve my food for my men of war. †1. intransitive. To agree, consent; to assent to the request of (a person: const. dative); to agree or consent to or to do (rarely at do) something. Obsolete. 1340 Ayenbite (1866) 225 Þe ilke bernþ þet to zenne graunteþ. c1385 G. Chaucer Legend Good Women Hypermnestra. 2665 [Egiste commanded his daughter, with threats, to kill her husband;] And, for to passyn harmles of that place, She grauntyth hym. 1390 J. Gower Confessio Amantis III. 338 He..graunteth with hem for to wende. a1400 (▸a1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 16851 Ioseph..granted neuer wit wil ne werc, to þair gret felunni. c1400 Mandeville's Trav. (Roxb.) xxx. 138 Þai graunted at do all þat he wald bidd þam do. c1450 (▸c1400) Sowdon of Babylon (1881) l. 250 I graunte to be his derlynge. c1450 Jacob's Well (1900) 198 Þe freendys prayed þe preest to ley þe dede body on his asse. Þerto grauntyd he hem. 1485 W. Caxton tr. Paris & Vienne (1957) 12 At these wordes graunted Parys to goo to the sayd Ioustes. 1487 (▸a1380) J. Barbour Bruce (St. John's Cambr.) iv. 352 I grant thar-till To ly heir mair war litill skill. 1523 Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. ccxliii. 363 He graunted to the warr with an yuell wyll. a1547 Earl of Surrey tr. Virgil Certain Bks. Aenæis (1557) ii. sig. Aiv Assigning me To the altar: whereto they graunted all. a1616 W. Shakespeare Henry VI, Pt. 3 (1623) i. i. 246 The Souldiers should haue toss'd me on their Pikes, Before I would haue granted to that Act.
  10. Jacob 2:8 could be 'it seems to me' or 'I believe'. WM 1:2 could be 'I expect', which is an older meaning of suppose. The two in Alma 54 could be 'I imagine' or even 'I suspect'.
  11. The Book of Mormon has 12 instances of "from time to time". This one in Alma 49 conveys an obsolete meaning of 'at all times' (a1500–a1679), the opposite of the usual reading: (Alma 49:21) the captains of the Lamanites brought up their armies before the place of entrance and began to contend with the Nephites, to get into their place of security. But behold, they were driven back from time to time, insomuch that they were slain with an immense slaughter. time Definition: P2.j.(b) from time to (formerly †unto) time. †(b) At all times; continuously, or for an extended period; in an unbroken succession. Obsolete. 1553 T. Wilson Arte of Rhetorique 14 Heaven is theirs, saieth David, that doe justly from tyme to tyme. 1586 T. Bowes tr. P. de la Primaudaye French Acad. I. 550 Therefore nothing was more esteemed from time to time among the auncients, than the institution of youth, which Plato calleth Discipline. 1615 E. Grimeston tr. P. d'Avity Estates 1195 It was held for certain that the institution comes from the Apostles, who ordained seuen Deacons, the which haue continued from time to time. a1679 M. Poole Annot. Holy Bible (1683) I. sig. 5D2/2 I will therefore wait on God,..and will continue waiting from time to time, until my change come.
  12. Compare the Tanners' "3,913 Changes in the Book of Mormon" (1982) with Royal Skousen's meticulous work in this area: https://journal.interpreterfoundation.org/changes-in-the-book-of-mormon/ and https://www.fairlatterdaysaints.org/conference/august-2002/changes-in-the-book-of-mormon. 105,000 places of variation in the computerized collation!
  13. What does "it supposeth me" mean in these passages? Jacob 2:8 And it supposeth me that they have come up hither to hear the pleasing word of God, The Words of Mormon 1:2 And it supposeth me that he will witness the entire destruction of my people. Alma 54:11 But behold, it supposeth me that I talk to you concerning these things in vain, or it supposeth me that thou art a child of hell.
  14. This is an archaic usage, maybe the meaning in Shakespeare's Othello. Definitely the meaning in Malory, c1469. “whereby hath my father so much sorrow?” (Ether 8:9) †3. For what reason? why? (by prep. 36). Obsolete. 1470–85 T. Malory Morte d'Arthur viii. xvi. 297 Be ye a knyght of Cornewaile? where by aske ye hit? said sir Tristram. a1616 W. Shakespeare Othello (1622) iii. i. 9 Clo. Thereby hangs a tayle. Boy. Whereby hangs a tayle sir?
  15. On the title page, scattered doesn't mean 'dispersed', it means 'separated from the main group': “which is a record of the people of Jared which were scattered at the time the Lord confounded the language of the people” That's an archaic meaning, similar to this: 1577, A03448 who being so suddenly taken, could not stand to bicker, but some fled this way, some that way, the earl was scattered from his company, and the lord Butler unawares was hurt,
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