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  1. There is plenty of inaccurate information in the literature about biblical quoting in the Book of Mormon. In general, researchers in this domain have been willing to cherry-pick and speculate without doing the necessary preliminary work of thorough textual comparison and analysis. The wording of the biblical quotations in the Book of Mormon is neither paraphrastic nor a close copy of the King James passages. This rules out revealed ideas or the use of a Bible or even what I regard as a fanciful crutch, eidetic imagery. Bible use isn't supported by any known witness. Chapter divisions were ignored and cannot be discerned in the manuscripts. There are 36 identifiable sections of the Book of Mormon that quote substantial portions of the King James Bible (with matching n-grams of n ≥ 16, requiring at a minimum clause-level matching). These sections do so in a way that strongly favors the view that the quotations were the result of revealed words. In other words, a pre-edited, mostly King James text was transmitted to Joseph Smith, with many KJV infelicities intact.
  2. Overall, Doctrine and Covenants language is a better fit with 1600s usage, not 1700s usage. Relevant to this is that "strong drinks" referring to higher alcohol content drinks was a more common phrase in the 1600s than in the 1700s. (Consider also verse 17: "and barley for all useful animals, and for mild drinks, as also other grain.") Now we come to an interesting possibility. Hot drinks could also mean strong drinks in the 1600s. Perhaps the use in D&C 89 is a second repeat, to emphasize the point. Maybe it doesn't refer to hot temperature, but to the fact that "hot" drinks can "make our wits to dance" (1607). (The general consensus among LDS scholars, that Joseph Smith worded Doctrine and Covenants revelations, is received wisdom, not based on syntactic comparisons, so it's suspect. I find a variety of usage in the revelations that seems unlikely for him to have worded under revelation, based on comparative studies with his own writings and pseudo-archaic texts and the textual record.)
  3. https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/ensign/1997/02/when-our-children-go-astray?lang=eng
  4. Is it unrighteous to have lower human populations rather than higher populations? Won't mammals be pressured less with lower population levels and won't species extinction proceed at a lower rate?
  5. It seems that no matter the population trend, we can count on authors to write that the trend is dire. Isn't one of the main reasons governments incentivize population growth because they have put in place entitlement Ponzi programs that demand growing populations?
  6. This next one also turns out to be an old meaning, and it is not in any previous write-ups on obsolete lexical meaning in the Book of Mormon. So there might be others out there that haven't yet been found. But it is increasingly difficult to find them. This is the only time the verb grant is used with a following infinitive in the Book of Mormon. The verb does not have its usual meaning. Here it means 'agree', in the context of agreeing to Moroni's request. Notice that the last quote with an infinitive is Caxton (it's def. 1 in the OED), and the last example is from Shakespeare, before major American colonization. There are other very early ones like this, enough for the reasonable to dismiss the idea that all this older meaning was around in Joseph Smith's environment. (Alma 54:20) Nevertheless I will grant to exchange prisoners according to your request gladly, that I may preserve my food for my men of war. †1. intransitive. To agree, consent; to assent to the request of (a person: const. dative); to agree or consent to or to do (rarely at do) something. Obsolete. 1340 Ayenbite (1866) 225 Þe ilke bernþ þet to zenne graunteþ. c1385 G. Chaucer Legend Good Women Hypermnestra. 2665 [Egiste commanded his daughter, with threats, to kill her husband;] And, for to passyn harmles of that place, She grauntyth hym. 1390 J. Gower Confessio Amantis III. 338 He..graunteth with hem for to wende. a1400 (▸a1325) Cursor Mundi (Vesp.) l. 16851 Ioseph..granted neuer wit wil ne werc, to þair gret felunni. c1400 Mandeville's Trav. (Roxb.) xxx. 138 Þai graunted at do all þat he wald bidd þam do. c1450 (▸c1400) Sowdon of Babylon (1881) l. 250 I graunte to be his derlynge. c1450 Jacob's Well (1900) 198 Þe freendys prayed þe preest to ley þe dede body on his asse. Þerto grauntyd he hem. 1485 W. Caxton tr. Paris & Vienne (1957) 12 At these wordes graunted Parys to goo to the sayd Ioustes. 1487 (▸a1380) J. Barbour Bruce (St. John's Cambr.) iv. 352 I grant thar-till To ly heir mair war litill skill. 1523 Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. ccxliii. 363 He graunted to the warr with an yuell wyll. a1547 Earl of Surrey tr. Virgil Certain Bks. Aenæis (1557) ii. sig. Aiv Assigning me To the altar: whereto they graunted all. a1616 W. Shakespeare Henry VI, Pt. 3 (1623) i. i. 246 The Souldiers should haue toss'd me on their Pikes, Before I would haue granted to that Act.
  7. Jacob 2:8 could be 'it seems to me' or 'I believe'. WM 1:2 could be 'I expect', which is an older meaning of suppose. The two in Alma 54 could be 'I imagine' or even 'I suspect'.
  8. The Book of Mormon has 12 instances of "from time to time". This one in Alma 49 conveys an obsolete meaning of 'at all times' (a1500–a1679), the opposite of the usual reading: (Alma 49:21) the captains of the Lamanites brought up their armies before the place of entrance and began to contend with the Nephites, to get into their place of security. But behold, they were driven back from time to time, insomuch that they were slain with an immense slaughter. time Definition: P2.j.(b) from time to (formerly †unto) time. †(b) At all times; continuously, or for an extended period; in an unbroken succession. Obsolete. 1553 T. Wilson Arte of Rhetorique 14 Heaven is theirs, saieth David, that doe justly from tyme to tyme. 1586 T. Bowes tr. P. de la Primaudaye French Acad. I. 550 Therefore nothing was more esteemed from time to time among the auncients, than the institution of youth, which Plato calleth Discipline. 1615 E. Grimeston tr. P. d'Avity Estates 1195 It was held for certain that the institution comes from the Apostles, who ordained seuen Deacons, the which haue continued from time to time. a1679 M. Poole Annot. Holy Bible (1683) I. sig. 5D2/2 I will therefore wait on God,..and will continue waiting from time to time, until my change come.
  9. Compare the Tanners' "3,913 Changes in the Book of Mormon" (1982) with Royal Skousen's meticulous work in this area: https://journal.interpreterfoundation.org/changes-in-the-book-of-mormon/ and https://www.fairlatterdaysaints.org/conference/august-2002/changes-in-the-book-of-mormon. 105,000 places of variation in the computerized collation!
  10. What does "it supposeth me" mean in these passages? Jacob 2:8 And it supposeth me that they have come up hither to hear the pleasing word of God, The Words of Mormon 1:2 And it supposeth me that he will witness the entire destruction of my people. Alma 54:11 But behold, it supposeth me that I talk to you concerning these things in vain, or it supposeth me that thou art a child of hell.
  11. This is an archaic usage, maybe the meaning in Shakespeare's Othello. Definitely the meaning in Malory, c1469. “whereby hath my father so much sorrow?” (Ether 8:9) †3. For what reason? why? (by prep. 36). Obsolete. 1470–85 T. Malory Morte d'Arthur viii. xvi. 297 Be ye a knyght of Cornewaile? where by aske ye hit? said sir Tristram. a1616 W. Shakespeare Othello (1622) iii. i. 9 Clo. Thereby hangs a tayle. Boy. Whereby hangs a tayle sir?
  12. On the title page, scattered doesn't mean 'dispersed', it means 'separated from the main group': “which is a record of the people of Jared which were scattered at the time the Lord confounded the language of the people” That's an archaic meaning, similar to this: 1577, A03448 who being so suddenly taken, could not stand to bicker, but some fled this way, some that way, the earl was scattered from his company, and the lord Butler unawares was hurt,
  13. This one was probably not fully understood in 1830. The part in bold means 'until'. Even today we use to to mean 'until', but not in this context. The to was deleted in 1837: (1 Nephi 18:9 • page 48, lines 11–15 • 1 Nephi V) behold, my brethren, and the sons of Ish­- mael, and also their wives, began to make themselves merry, insomuch that they began to dance, and to sing, and to speak with much rudeness, yea, even to that they did forget by what power they had been brought thither ;
  14. The verb departed found in the printer's manuscript is intransitive. (As shown above, departed didn't make it into the 1830 first edition.) So the relevant OED definition is †1b, not †2. This intransitive usage is not in Webster's 1828 ADEL. The transitive usage is in ADEL and in the 1557 Geneva Bible (see above). The latest OED ex. for the intransitive is dated 1577, but EEBO has examples into the 17c, at least as late as 1615. The wording of Helaman 8:11 is very similar to this, which has intransitive divided, providing confirmation of the meaning: (1 Nephi 4:2 • pages 11–12 • 1 Nephi I) For he truly spake unto the waters of the Red Sea, and they divided hither and thither,
  15. Here an archaic meaning makes sense in context, something like 'was busy with plans to' or 'began to prepare to': “his heart took courage / insomuch that he was about to go forth against all the land // and now he did not tarry in the land of Zarahemla” (Helaman 1:22–23) Here the verb give has an archaic meaning of 'describe, portray . . . as' (now it reads named ) : (Alma 46:17 • page 351, lines 21–24 • Alma XXI) And it came to pass that when he had poured out his soul to God, he gave all the land which was south of the land Desolation ; yea, and in fine, all the land, both on the north and on the south, a chosen land, and the land of liberty.— This is Shakespearean usage, c1616, see OED def. 25. The last non-poetic example is dated 1638.
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