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I believe the "Baal exalts" etymology is based on a theory that this is an intentional alteration and shortening of the Phoenician name Ba'alezebel "Baal exalts." I believe that theory has been discredited.

Sometimes you'll see the name given as "chaste," which derives from a theory of Gesenius that the aleph yod was a negative particle, sort of a privative like English un-, and the name meant (in Gesenius' Latin) non-habitatio (IE "Without Cohabitation"). But I think the idea that the name begins with a negative particle has not been established.

I think the etymology is considered obscure; the HALOT suggestion seems as good as anything else.

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There is no ayin, so it certainly isn't baal. I think zebel is the word for temple- zebul in Hebrew.

The most common use of zebul is "prince." Baalzebub (Lord of Flies) was actually Baalzebul (Baal is Prince), which gives us onomastic evidence for the component -zebul as "prince."

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