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Civilations in Brazil 200 AD?


MatthewG

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Interesting Article about early civilizations in Amazon.

Amazon Civilation

It is the legend that drew legions of explorers and adventurers to their deaths: an ancient empire of citadels and treasure hidden deep in the Amazon jungle.

Spanish conquistadores ventured into the rainforest seeking fortune, followed over the centuries by others convinced they would find a lost civilisation to rival the Aztecs and Incas.

Some seekers called it El Dorado, others the City of Z. But the jungle swallowed them and nothing was found, prompting the rest of the world to call it a myth. The Amazon was too inhospitable, said 20th century scholars, to permit large human settlements.

Now, however, the doomed dreamers have been proved right: there was a great civilisation. New satellite imagery and fly-overs have revealed more than 200 huge geometric earthworks carved in the upper Amazon basin near Brazil's border with Bolivia.

Spanning 155 miles, the circles, squares and other geometric shapes form a network of avenues, ditches and enclosures built long before Christopher Columbus set foot in the new world. Some date to as early as 200 AD, others to 1283.

Scientists who have mapped the earthworks believe there may be another 2,000 structures beneath the jungle canopy, vestiges of vanished societies.

The structures, many of which have been revealed by the clearance of forest for agriculture, point to a "sophisticated pre-Columbian monument-building society", says the journal Antiquity, which has published the research.

The article adds: "This hitherto unknown people constructed earthworks of precise geometric plan connected by straight orthogonal roads. The 'geoglyph culture' stretches over a region more than 250km across, and exploits both the floodplains and the uplands

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I watched a fascination doco on this or a related find a few years ago. The transcript is here.

I know it's hard to put an exact figure on the waves of human extinction which swept across the Americas post-Columbus, but, in The Conquest of America, Tzvetan Todorov estimated that the population of the New World had fallen by 90% in the first 70 or so years. These kinds of finds reinforce just how unique the situation in the Americas is when it comes to dealing with the past. Because of the introduction of Old World diseases, entire civilasations simply disappeared before even being recorded, and in many cases we can easily miss any physical evidence they may have left behind. For this reason, New World archaeology presents problems we simply don't find anywhere else.

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I watched a fascination doco on this or a related find a few years ago. The transcript is here.

I know it's hard to put an exact figure on the waves of human extinction which swept across the Americas post-Columbus, but, in The Conquest of America, Tzvetan Todorov estimated that the population of the New World had fallen by 90% in the first 70 or so years. These kinds of finds reinforce just how unique the situation in the Americas is when it comes to dealing with the past. Because of the introduction of Old World diseases, entire civilasations simply disappeared before even being recorded, and in many cases we can easily miss any physical evidence they may have left behind. For this reason, New World archaeology presents problems we simply don't find anywhere else.

No it doesn't! Didn't you know that anthropologists have determined that S. America was populated by Polynesians coming West to East!rolleyes.gif

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This is a good video about Amazon dwellers who are possible descendants of ancient tribes. The Amazon is intriguing to say the least. They've found ancient pottery suggesting people lived there over 1500 years ago.

Yes I saw this video several months ago. I would like to get a hold of that special supercharged composte they used back then. I'd make a fortune selling it.

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Hmm.. I just finished reading a link of the Cloud People of the Amazon of Northern Peru. Related? However what suprised me was the stone carvings along the cliff.

http://www.archaeolo...chachapoya.html

Well, well look what we have here.

http://www.archaeolo...chachapoya1.jpg

Anyone want to take bets on similarities to the Rapa Nui stone sculptures? Beginning to look a lot like a Polynesian connection. Hatu Matoa your looking good.

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I work in 16th-century Iberian documents as a PhD student. I encounter passages all the time describing as 'white' or 'fair skinned' people whom you and I would never even consider to be white. In many cases, it seems to have been a description suggesting refinement or even 'civilization.' For example, it was not unusual for a Portuguese author during this time period to describe the coastal people of New Guinea (who were more settled) as fair skinned whilst the hunter-gatherers of the interior were described as being black. In addition, it was common for a local (and very brown) chief to be described as white after he had embraced Christianity. Last, Jesuit accounts from this time period are unanimous in describing the Japanese as being as white as Europeans--again, a probable reference to their perceived level of 'civilization.'

Actually New Guinea does have black and fair skinned tribes. It is even politically set up that way as divided in half according to tribal race. Many of the New Guinea tribes in the interior have DNA relating to origins in Africa along with Fijians and several other tribal cultures in the Melanesian Pacific. My sister-in-law is grand-daughter of a Fijian Chief. Her DNA has African roots, yet is more fair skin due to Asiatic roots also.

My wife is also fair skinned even though she is Japanese. Her whole family is. It is also due in part to being of the Northern Japan region. She is more whiter than myself and not yellow or double eye lid as half the Japanese population is. It is also noted that the Ainu they were more fair skinned and hairy, and lived in Northern Japan were eventually mixed in with more dark skin Asian cultures.

So I could see why Portuguese sailors and Jesuits could make these assertions.

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Another side note I will add. I can also see how fair skin can be misleading also as in Polynesian culture. As in the Easter Island culture and Hawaiian, women sometimes were confined to a cave for some time periods. This usually made them more fair skinned for pleasing Alii's (chiefs) and making them more enticing for marriage. It may be that this custom was practiced in S. America. Which has a Polynesian connection.

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Another side note I will add. I can also see how fair skin can be misleading also as in Polynesian culture.

Generally speaking, fair skin is a misleading term in just about every culture. It's dependent on a reference point that not usually a worldwide sample of variation but to the culture it being stated in. So that reference point will alter based on the time period (lingustic differences) and the culture that it is speaking about.

With luv,

BD

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The OP inspired me to write up and post this recent blog article:A Recent Archaeological Find and Veneration of the Book of Mormon. Come check it out, post your comments, and vote on the article.

Well I commented in your blog and gave it a thumbs up.

I especially liked your assertion:

"This is something that the Critics claim never happened, nor could have possibly occurred. Yet, though we do not have actual physical evidence, we have the recording of ancient Inca legends confirming what is written in 3 Nephi, a major Volcanic catastrophe that occurred in 3 Nephi, and parallelisms between The Chronicler Pedro Cieza de Le

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Well I commented in your blog and gave it a thumbs up.

I especially liked your assertion:

"This is something that the Critics claim never happened, nor could have possibly occurred. Yet, though we do not have actual physical evidence, we have the recording of ancient Inca legends confirming what is written in 3 Nephi, a major Volcanic catastrophe that occurred in 3 Nephi, and parallelisms between The Chronicler Pedro Cieza de Le

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...Even if it's folklore it has a basis of a incident that occurred for the story line to evolve.

"A legend may not be a record of facts, but the existence of a legend is itself a fact, and requires an explanation."

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