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M-m-m And The 1857-58 Utah War


Uncle Dale

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It is probably not generally known that the original "Johnston's Army," sent to Utah in July of 1857,

was at first a relatively small force -- essentially just an armed escort for the new territorial officials.

Then, in December of 1857, President Buchanan greatly increased the size of that force -- until perhaps

as much as 1/3 of the entire US Army was deployed to Kansas and points west.

Why?

Some possibilities --

1. Brigham Young's "proclamation" reached the East days before Buchanan made the huge deployment.

2. News of the massing of Utah militia and gathering of allied Indian warriors reached the east then.

3. News of MMM, and the popular reaction were reaching Buchanan's desk when he made his decision.

I have placed on-line several news items appearing in the Washington, D. C. press at this time:

http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/MA/dnatint3.htm

http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/MA/dnatint3.htm#112057

etc. etc.

1858Army.jpg

-- Johnston's Army Crossing the Plains on its Way to Utah --

(Harper's Weekly, April 24, 1858)

I am also linking here to a couple of related items from California and from Utah:

http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/CA/misccal1.htm#102757a

http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/UT/utahmsc1.htm#120957

How do all of these pieces fit together?

UD

.

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This is getting surreal, Dale. When I saw the thread title, I thought "well that's not very controversial; Johnston's Army was the cause, the MMM the effect." Somewhat simplified, of course, but that's pretty much it. I can't believe anyone would seriously contemplate trying to reverse the chain of causation here.

Still, as you are doing with the child survivors, perhaps you could do here: you've laboured come up with the only possible hostile theory on the subject entirely out of whole cloth; now all you have to do is find some actual evidence in support.

The disappointment deepens.

Regards,

Pahoran

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This is getting surreal, Dale. When I saw the thread title, I thought "well that's not very controversial; Johnston's Army was the cause, the MMM the effect." Somewhat simplified, of course, but that's pretty much it. I can't believe anyone would seriously contemplate trying to reverse the chain of causation here.

Still, as you are doing with the child survivors, perhaps you could do here: you've laboured come up with the only possible hostile theory on the subject entirely out of whole cloth; now all you have to do is find some actual evidence in support.

The disappointment deepens.

Regards,

Pahoran

I do not think that MMM much affected Buchanan's decision. He barely mentions Indian hostilities in

his Dec. 9, 1857 "Message" to the nation -- but he does call for an additional four regiments of troops.

There are two other possibilities that I did not mention, because they are mere speculation -- but they

were topics much discussed at the time. One idea was that Buchanan wanted to have troops ready

for quick deployment to "bleeding Kansas" and that he used the Utah troubles as an excuse for

recruiting and funding a large increase to the standing army. Another idea is that he used the Utah

troubles as an excuse to get additional troops posted to Oregon and to keep open the Oregon road,

in the face of growing Indian problems there. Also, as a side note -- it seems that some of the

southerners in Congress were happier seeing the federal troops posted out west, than at places like

Fort Sumter -- as the clouds of a coming US civil war grew darker.

What ever the reasons were, I think that it was this unexpected increase of four regiments of armed

troops coming towards Utah, that convinced Bigham Young, Daniel H. Wells, George A. Smith, and

the other topmost leaders not to put up a fight. The loss of Fort Limhi in Idaho, the need to evacuate

indefensible San Bernardino, the threat of "California volunteers," and a growing popular opinion

against the Utahans made an active, fighting war an impossibility.

But it seems that all of this would have come together, entirely without the MMM events.

At what point in 1857 or 1858 did the Mormon leadership realize, and admit openly, that God would

not give the Mormons a military victory -- nor a negotiated peace that left them in charge of all

the governmental offices in the Territory?

My guess, is that the straw that broke the camel's back, was the loss of Indian allies in Idaho -- which

put in doubt the theological precept that the Lamanites would rage through the wicked gentiles, like

"young lions," and bring about the establishment of the political kingdom.

In other words, it was not a fake MMM Indian bloodbath that ended Mormon resistance, but the fear of a

real one, potentially directed against the Mormons themselves.

UD

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Very interesting reply by Abraham Lincoln to Douglas's call on the

federal government to punish the Mormons:

"FELLOW CITIZENS: -- I am here to-night, partly by the invitation of some of you, and partly by my own inclination. Two weeks ago Judge Douglas spoke here on the several subjects of Kansas, the Dred Scott decision, and Utah. I listened to the speech at the time, and have read the report of it since. It was intended to controvert opinions which I think just, and to assail (politically, not personally,) those men who, in common with me, entertain those opinions. For this reason I wished then, and still wish, to make some answer to it, which I now take the opportunity of doing.

I begin with Utah. If it prove to be true, as is probable, that the people of Utah are in open rebellion to the United States, then Judge Douglas is in favor of repealing their territorial organization, and attaching them to the adjoining States for judicial purposes. I say, too, if they are in rebellion, they ought to be somehow coerced to obedience; and I am not now prepared to admit or deny that the Judge's mode of coercing them is not as good as any. The Republicans can fall in with it without taking back anything they have ever said. To be sure, it would be a considerable backing down by Judge Douglas from his much vaunted doctrine of self-government for the territories; but this is only additional proof of what was very plain from the beginning, that that doctrine was a mere deceitful pretense for the benefit of slavery. Those who could not see that much in the Nebraska act itself, which forced Governors, and Secretaries, and Judges on the people of the territories, without their choice or consent, could not be made to see, though one should rise from the dead to testify.

"But in all this, it is very plain the Judge evades the only question the Republicans have ever pressed upon the Democracy in regard to Utah. That question the Judge well knows to be this: "If the people of Utah shall peacefully form a State Constitution tolerating polygamy, will the Democracy admit them into the Union?" -- There is nothing in the United States Constitution or law against polygamy; and why is it not a part of the Judge's "sacred right of self-government" for that people to have it, or rather to keep it, if they choose? These questions, so far as I know, the Judge never answers. It might involve the Democracy to answer them either way, and they go unanswered."

There is more than meets the eye.

Bernard

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...

There is more than meets the eye.

Bernard

Indeed there is -- and here we see something of a turn-about in political thinking.

It was Lincoln who wanted the federal government to exercise a large measure of control in the

territories, and Douglas who had been the great proponent of "popular sovereignty," which was a

throw-back to the Jacksonian ideals Mormons so desired.

But in 1857 we have Douglas standing up to signal to the Democrats that they needed to re-think just

how much free rein to allow sections of the country like Utah. He went so far as to propose disolving

the territorial government he himself had helped establish there in 1850.

Lincoln and the Whigs (just then becoming the Republican party) saw in this a means to confront

the Democrats and perhaps still retain popular support. Which looks strange -- as the Whigs in Illinois

had been the Mormons' enemies and Judge Douglas had been a sometime polical ally of Joseph Smith.

And, looking on from the sidelines was Horace Greely -- who stole the show, by going out to Utah

and playing nice with Brigham Young.

In other words, there was a whole lot of shifting and flip-flopping going on among the politicians who

were eyeing the 1860 elections as much as they were the state of affairs (no pun) in Utah Territory.

The Mormons were very upset at Douglas, for they saw his shiftings as betokening gathering support

for Buchanan's changing things in Utah. But they were no great fans of Lincoln either. Over time they

shifted themselves, away from Jacksonial ideals over to middle-class Republican conservatism --

but that took a long while.

And, we should not think that the Mormon leaders were so isolated in "The Valley," that they were not

doing a little behind-the-scenes "moving and shaking" in Washington, D. C. and in some statehouses.

How Young ever scored Alfred Cumming as his replacement, I know not -- but he could not have

done better in selecting a puppet, had he whispered the name in Buchanan's ear.

All of that aside, there was a real period of danger the the last part of 1857 and the first part of

1858, where a true bloodbath was possible ---- that was eventually avoided ---- somehow.

UD

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I do not think that MMM much affected Buchanan's decision. He barely mentions Indian hostilities in his Dec. 9, 1857 "Message" to the nation -- but he does call for an additional four regiments of troops.

Given that, by 9 December, the Blunderers had already been effectively stalemated, like the Brits in the Dardanelles, their fearless leader naturally chose to reinforce their failure by calling for more poor souls to freeze their collective tookas in the smoldering ruins of Fort Bridger.

It's the rare leader who doesn't try to reinforce his most spectacular failures.

USU "I'm a Jimmy Carter!" 78

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Seems to me that what we need to do is prove conclusively that Orson Welles was Mormon.

With that pretext settled, Unk can continue his modus operandi, extend his rigorous scholarship, and (using contemporary media reports) prove conclusively that the 1938 broadcast of "War of the Worlds" was, in fact, a secret Mormon plot to move the last of the MMM hostages and the five thousand gold bars recovered from the wagon train a secret Builderberger warehouse hidden deep beneath the Jersey Turnpike.

Details and a precise historical reenactment will be forthcoming in September Dawn II: A Live Interview with Carole Wang Shutter's Pod-Person Duplicate.

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Indeed there is -- and here we see something of a turn-about in political thinking.

It was Lincoln who wanted the federal government to exercise a large measure of control in the

territories, and Douglas who had been the great proponent of "popular sovereignty," which was a

throw-back to the Jacksonian ideals Mormons so desired.

But in 1857 we have Douglas standing up to signal to the Democrats that they needed to re-think just

how much free rein to allow sections of the country like Utah. He went so far as to propose disolving

the territorial government he himself had helped establish there in 1850.

Lincoln and the Whigs (just then becoming the Republican party) saw in this a means to confront

the Democrats and perhaps still retain popular support. Which looks strange -- as the Whigs in Illinois

had been the Mormons' enemies and Judge Douglas had been a sometime polical ally of Joseph Smith....

In other words, there was a whole lot of shifting and flip-flopping going on among the politicians who

were eyeing the 1860 elections as much as they were the state of affairs (no pun) in Utah Territory.

I think that the bottom line for Douglas' 'flip-flop' on state sovereignty was an attempt to skirt the issue of slavery. The polygamy and Mormon rebellion issue provided a great way for pro-slavery Democrats to start pointing the finger at something other than the slavery debate. Avoid one moral quandry by finding another opportune moral issue.* After all, why should people get so caught up in this slavery issue when there are crazy, polygamous Mormons out in Utah who are in open rebellion against the United States and who want to trample our democratic ideals by imposing a theocracy!!! Will the people of the Republic stand for this outrage?!?! As for slavery, there's nothing to see here <sweep under carpet>.

Perhaps in hindsight it seems like a silly way to try to put a lid on the boiling kettle that was slavery and states' rights, and it's a position quite at odds with the Douglas' beliefs. But at the time, it was probably more attractive to divert attention to the Mormon Problem (against an 'external' enemy liked by no one) instead of confronting the more pressing problem of the imminent demise of the Union.

The Republicans, quite properly, lept on Douglas for being a hypocrite and a twit.

*Not that politicians today would stoop to such levels!

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Given that, by 9 December, the Blunderers had already been effectively stalemated, like the Brits in the Dardanelles, their fearless leader naturally chose to reinforce their failure by calling for more poor souls to freeze their collective tookas in the smoldering ruins of Fort Bridger.

It's the rare leader who doesn't try to reinforce his most spectacular failures.

USU "I'm a Jimmy Carter!" 78

Did you read the excerpt from the Secretary of War's 1857 message that I posted on my DC

newspapers page. http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/MA/dnatint3.htm#121557

Secretary Floyd was the driving force behind sending so many troops out west. Why?

Interesting to look at the army camp names of the Utah Expedition -- Camp Scott (abandoned),

Camp Floyd (abandoned), Camp Douglas (all but abandoned during the Civil War).

Were those "happy campers" merely lickspooning for the "special interests" of their day? Was the entire

Utah Expedition a Haliburton-style "masters of war" money-making scheme (as the Deseret News said

at the time)?

Perhaps so -- But "Buchanan's blunder" had the very real effect of ending Mormon popular sovereignty,

and that's a fact -- just as the US Civil War ended the notion of states' rights for succession.

As best I can reconstruct (pun intended) the Mormon's notion of "equal rights" and "mountain law," it

entailed the creation of an independent nation allied with the USA, something like the "commonwealths"

of the Northern Mariana Islands and Virgin Islands -- or, more exactly, the "compact of free association"

the USA has with the Federated States of Micronesia.

In such a loose compact, the State of Deseret would have been essentially an independent country,

allied with the USA and sheltered under the USA's constitution -- but with very very few obligations

and reponsibilities to the parent country.

Buchanan ended that dangerous dream -- not by exterminating the Utahans (as they preached was the

goal of the armed dragoons) -- not by destroying Mormonism (as the Mormons preached was the goal),

but by simply implementing the Constitution in its strict interpretation, regarding the Union.

How did the Mountain Meadows massacre play into all of this? It came too late in the popular perception

to have been the genesis of Secretary Floyd's adding five more regiments to the Utah Expedition -- but

it did serve as a "media vehicle," to insure that the Utah War was funded, and at a time of financial

crisis for the new Buchanan administration.

News of the massacre also solidified support for the Utah Expedition in gold-rich California and Oregon --

from each of which, several thousands of volunteers could have been produced, if the federals really

did get into a tactical "hard spot" in Utah.

News of the massacre was purposely suppressed in the "Deseret News," but Mormons all through Utah

knew of the terrible, bloody engagement, supposedly pulled off by their Indian allies.

When the Fort Limhi disaster occurred, the notion that baptized LDS Indians could turn upon "cousin

Ephraim" and massacre Mormons as well, was a new realization that cooled Mormon war fever. The

Indians, the mountain-men, and the Gentile settlers of California and Oregon would mostly become

the Mormons' military enemies in any anticipated bloodbath. A sobering realization...

Thus MMM served a purpose -- as "Brigham's blunder" -- but not in the way we might think, at first glance.

UD

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What about the supposition that Floyd and Buchannon where diverting troops and supplies

to the west in preparation for the Civil War?

I think that is part of the equation -- but not the entire answer.

I look at the "Deseret News" for that period, and I read contemporary Mormon documents, and the

"party line" there pushed is that bad old "Uncle Sam" wishes to destroy Mormonism -- rather like

Satan wishes to oppose the latter day work.

The Mormons' charge, that the Buchanan administration was prompted by its desire to fill the pockets

of government contractors, has a little more basis in fact, I think.

But the popular perception of that day did not yet anticipate the military scope of the upcoming Civil War.

Not even the LDS prophets were so perceptive as to foresee what effects the Utah Expedition would

have upon the Southern Succession.

Secretary of War Floyd, a southerner, was probably happy to see federal troops posted far away from

the Deep South -- but his deploying of the five additional regiments in 1858 meant his having to recruit

new troops from places like Philadelphia. Southerners were less inclined to join the army -- more tied

to the land -- less impacted by factory lay-offs and other effects of the 1857 financial crisis. The majority

of troops recruited for Utah and Kansas came from the North.

That must have given Secretary Floyd pause -- for these recruits would be trained and soon become

experienced in military discipline and abilities -- a threat to the South in months to come.

So, I think it was a trade-off for Floyd -- a short term gain for southerners, but a long term loss.

And, within a few short years, the picture of whites killing whites at the Mountain Meadows massacre,

would be repeated time after time after time. Wasn't Johnston, the expedition leader, killed at Shiloh?

UD

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...

And, within a few short years, the picture of whites killing whites at the Mountain Meadows massacre,

would be repeated time after time after time. Wasn't Johnston, the expedition leader, killed at Shiloh?

UD

Isn't it also true Johston had issues with state rights and the "Rebellious Mormons" revolting against the Union, and then within a few short years apparently had a change of heart?

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BTW, does anyone know about how many troops are in a "Company?" And also about how many are in a "Infantry?" The reason I ask is that the initial amount (at least according to my limited sources) was eight Companies (from the Tenth Infantry) and the entire Fifth Infantry (as well as two batteries of artillery with a total of four six-pound, six twelve-pound, and two thirty-two-pounder howitzers and siege cannons).

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BTW, does anyone know about how many troops are in a "Company?" And also about how many are in a "Infantry?" The reason I ask is that the initial amount (at least according to my limited sources) was eight Companies (from the Tenth Infantry) and the entire Fifth Infantry (as well as two batteries of artillery with a total of four six-pound, six twelve-pound, and two thirty-two-pounder howitzers and siege cannons).

A company in the pre-Civil War period would be about 100-150 men, though this would be on paper. In many cases disease, injury, desertion, or detached duties would reduce that number, sometimes considerably.

Infantry is a military branch, not an organizational unit- they're the guys who run around on foot, as distinguished from cavalry or artillery. An infantry regiment like the 5th Infantry would generally have about 10 companies (I base that on regiment size during the Mexican-American War, which should be valid until the Civil War), so about 1000 men total (again, probably reduced from its paper strength for the above reasons).

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Another possibility is that one of Grant's little tabernacle sermons reached back East. Or maybe Drummond got a few more lies circulated.

Either way, I blame all of it on Drummond...

The Judge was no angel -- probably typical of the sort who would agree to go "out west" in those days.

None of which means that his reports of life among the Mormons consisted of nothing but lies.

There are plenty of mentions among the Mormons themselves, that they did not want "outsider" judges

who had no sympathy with the way things were done in Utah.

So, take the best, most even-handed judge you could possibly find, and send him to a federal appointment

out in Utah, and he was prone to spit tobacco on Brigham's freshly-polished floor, call plural wives "hos,"

and say that Joseph Smith was the durndest fraud since Simon Magus.

All of that, even if this good judge gave not a whit for the Mormon religion, one way or another -- but

was simply trying to run the judicial system properly.

The "Deseret News" was widely quoted in the east --- which is to say that eastern editors excerpted the

wildest rhetoric of "The Reformation" from its original context, and played Sandra Tanner with their

bold-type quotes. Jeddy Grant was well known in the columns of the "New York Herald," for exanple.

BTW, does anyone know about how many troops are in a "Company?" And also about how many

are in a "Infantry?" The reason I ask is that the initial amount (at least according to my limited

sources) was eight Companies (from the Tenth Infantry) and the entire Fifth Infantry (as well as two

batteries of artillery with a total of four six-pound, six twelve-pound, and two thirty-two-pounder

howitzers and siege cannons).

The size of a squad, a platoon, a brigade and a regiment varied, depending upon whether we are

talking 1850 or 1860, whether we are talking infantry, artillery, cavalry, or support troops. Best advice

is to do web searches for examples of the composition fo those military units at various periods.

At any rate -- to begin with -- probably less than 2500 military men were on their way to Utah, mainly

sent to function as an escort for the newly-appointed federal officials, which included Young's replacement.

Young's response was to say that his replacement had not yet arrived to replace him as Governor, and

so he was using his powers as Governor to prevent the new replacement from ever arriving in Utah.

Col. Kane's visit softened Brigham's stance a little -- and he said he would permit the replacement

officers to enter Utah without their escort --- a death sentence, given the circumstances, I believe.

Then Young got word that many times more federal dragoons were to be sent out to Utah -- something

I doubt he thought possible, given the 1857 financial crisis. Congress would never fund such madness.

Then along came the reports of the Fancher massacre, Indian warrior massings, and angry editorials

directed to Buchanan from all the newspapers in the nation, save two (Deseret News and NY Tribune) --

Without Brigham's declaraction of independence, and without Mountain Meadows, I doubt that Congress

would have funded one additional regiment, much less have added five more Utah Expedition regiments.

It's not the best analogy, but in modern times, think of how the 9-11 massacre served to induce the

US Congress to continue to fund the Iraq war.

Massacres have a life of their own --- best advice to zealots like Dame, Haight, Higbee, Klingensmith,

Lee (and oh yes, G. A. Smith): "Don't do such stuff -- you'll mess up the politics, and end up in hell."

UD

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It is probably not generally known that the original "Johnston's Army," sent to Utah in July of 1857,

was at first a relatively small force -- essentially just an armed escort for the new territorial officials.

....

What was the purpose? Where other such territorial govenors so escorted?

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I think [southern Adventurism in the West] is part of the equation -- but not the entire answer.

I look at the "Deseret News" for that period, and I read contemporary Mormon documents, and the "party line" there pushed is that bad old "Uncle Sam" wishes to destroy Mormonism -- rather like Satan wishes to oppose the latter day work.

The Mormons' charge, that the Buchanan administration was prompted by its desire to fill the pockets of government contractors, has a little more basis in fact, I think.

But the popular perception of that day did not yet anticipate the military scope of the upcoming Civil War. Not even the LDS prophets were so perceptive as to foresee what effects the Utah Expedition would have upon the Southern Succession.

Secretary of War Floyd, a southerner, was probably happy to see federal troops posted far away from the Deep South -- but his deploying of the five additional regiments in 1858 meant his having to recruit new troops from places like Philadelphia. Southerners were less inclined to join the army -- more tied to the land -- less impacted by factory lay-offs and other effects of the 1857 financial crisis. The majority of troops recruited for Utah and Kansas came from the North.

That must have given Secretary Floyd pause -- for these recruits would be trained and soon become experienced in military discipline and abilities -- a threat to the South in months to come.

So, I think it was a trade-off for Floyd -- a short term gain for southerners, but a long term loss.

And, within a few short years, the picture of whites killing whites at the Mountain Meadows massacre, would be repeated time after time after time. Wasn't Johnston, the expedition leader, killed at Shiloh?

So . . . we have the following, none of which is necessarily exclusive of any of the others:

1. Southern interests in gaining a "jumping off point" for forays into California and control of the gold fields.

2. Southern interests in gaining control of the "crossroads of the West."

3. Northern interests in gaining a "jumping off point" for forays into California and control of the gold fields as well as into the Oregon Territory with its ill-defined boundaries, which would later lead the US to the brink of a 3rd war with Britain.

4. Northern interests in gaining control of the "crossroads of the West."

5. Buchanan's political debts for:

a. Southern Senators' support for his election; and

b. War Contractors, control of which likely rested in his supporters.

6. Northern and Southern Senators' and the Administration's interests in diverting attention away from the Slavery/Succession issue which was on the verge of igniting into a holocaust.

7. &ct., including but not limited to Satan raging in the hearts of men.

Why do we need to identify but one cause, unless it is the conclusory # 7?

USU "Weary and Sad" 78

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The Judge was no angel -- probably typical of the sort who would agree to go "out west" in those days.

None of which means that his reports of life among the Mormons consisted of nothing but lies.

There are plenty of mentions among the Mormons themselves, that they did not want "outsider" judges

who had no sympathy with the way things were done in Utah.

So, take the best, most even-handed judge you could possibly find, and send him to a federal appointment

out in Utah, and he was prone to spit tobacco on Brigham's freshly-polished floor, call plural wives "hos,"

and say that Joseph Smith was the durndest fraud since Simon Magus.

All of that, even if this good judge gave not a whit for the Mormon religion, one way or another -- but

was simply trying to run the judicial system properly.

The "Deseret News" was widely quoted in the east --- which is to say that eastern editors excerpted the

wildest rhetoric of "The Reformation" from its original context, and played Sandra Tanner with their

bold-type quotes. Jeddy Grant was well known in the columns of the "New York Herald," for exanple.

My main reason for putting the majority of the blame on Drummond is because of his resignation letter that claimed:

1. There was a â??secret oath-bound organization among all the male members of the church to resist the laws of the country.â?

2. There was a â??set of men, set apart by special order of the church, to take both the lives and property of person who may question the authority of the Church.â?

3. That the â??records, papers, &c. of the Supreme Courtâ? had been â??destroyed by order of the Church.â?

4. That the â??federal officers are daily compelled to hear the form of the American government traduced, the chief executives of the nation, both living and dead, slandered and abused from the masse, as well as from all the leading members of the Church, in the most vulgar, loathsome, and wicked manner that the evil passions of men can possibly conceive.â?

5. That Captain John Gunnison and his party of eight were murdered under the â??orders, advice and direction of the Mormons.â?

6. That judge Leonidas Shaver died â??by drinking poisoned liquors given to him under the order of the leading men of the Mormon Church.â?

7. That Babbit was â??murdered on the plains by a band of Mormon marauders, under the particular and special order of Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and J.M. Grant.â? -- As opposed to the reports (that happened to be true) that he was killed by Indians.

8. Also other little bits and pieces of â??treasonâ? and â??murder.â?

At the end of his little laundry list of indictments, he suggested that BY be replaced as gov., and that whoever took his place be reinforced by military troops (and then he made the fun comment that until that happened it was â??noonday madness and folly to attempt to administer the law in that Territory.â? After Drummondâ??s little resignation that had all these little lies was published in editorial columns back east, the letters of outraged (but anonymous) contributors began to erupt; offering â??first-handâ? knowledge of all the treasonable and insubordinate acts of the Church as well as the â??horrors of Mormonismâ? (from those good ole letter writers such as â??Goliath,â? â??The Little Villain,â? and of course Drummondâ??s pseudonym â??Amicus Curiae.â?). It was only shortly after this that Buchanan ordered an army to Utah.

There were other things that definitely contributed (such as the pressures by the â??runawayâ? federal officials; BYâ??s constant spats with the territoryâ??s Indian agents; William M.F. Magrawâ??s little â??Mr. Presidentâ? letter; Thomas Twissâ?? complaints in his letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs; and of course the publics hatred of polygamy). But, even though each of these lead to support of Buchananâ??s order, it seems to me that the decision itself was almost completely predicated upon Drummondâ??s scurrilous (and unsubstantiated) accusations. In the very same month that Buchananâ??s decision was made public, Drummond was had made his way to Washington to be â??availableâ? to be called by Buchanan to be governor of the Utah Territory.

I donâ??t think Buchanan would have made the decision if it had not been for Drummond. Or at the very least, there would have been a substantial delay (until similar accusations were made by another source) before the decision was made.

At least thatâ??s my silly uneducated opinion.

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What was the purpose? Where other such territorial govenors so escorted?

Governors in Utah Territory were typically appointed for four years and served terms roughly parallel

to those of the US Presidents who appointed them.

Brigham Young's term of office was drawing to a close and it was natural that the new President (Buchanan)

would seek to retire him and put somebody else in his place -- that was just politics as usual.

But there was the additional factor, that federal judges, district attorneys, marshals and Indian agents

had been having a tough time serving out their terms in Utah. The Utahans said these federal appointees

were the scum of the earth --- and the officials said that the Mormons were trying to run the government

in Utah, making the federal officials either powerless figureheads or enemies threatened with violence.

Whatever the full facts were, it was Buchanan's right to appoint new federal officials and he had reports

telling him that his installation of these outsiders would be resisted in Utah. Thus he decided to send out

an armed escort, both to protect the new appointees and to establish a "military district," -- that is, a new

fort in Utah, (like Fort Laramie in Wyoming and Fort Leavenworth in Kansas).

All of this was fully within Buchanan's powers as President. However, the Utahans viewed the approaching

troops as a death squad, send out to execute Brigham Young and the other LDS leaders -- to crush the

LDS religion, and turn Utah unto another Kansas.

All of which suddenly escalated through the roof, at the beginning of December, when Buchanan increased

the troop levels from those needed for an escort and an army fort, to the level needed for an army of

occupation.

The US people might have objected at that point -- but word of the Mountain Meadows massacre and

several other smaller Utah massacres and murders were at that very moment filling the eastern

newspapers with anti-Brigham rhetoric. Thus, the "escort" became an "occupation force" overnight.

UD

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Governors in Utah Territory were typically appointed for four years and served terms roughly parallel

to those of the US Presidents who appointed them.

Brigham Young's term of office was drawing to a close and it was natural that the new President (Buchanan)

would seek to retire him and put somebody else in his place -- that was just politics as usual.

But there was the additional factor, that federal judges, district attorneys, marshals and Indian agents

had been having a tough time serving out their terms in Utah. The Utahans said these federal appointees

were the scum of the earth --- and the officials said that the Mormons were trying to run the government

in Utah, making the federal officials either powerless figureheads or enemies threatened with violence.

Whatever the full facts were, it was Buchanan's right to appoint new federal officials and he had reports

telling him that his installation of these outsiders would be resisted in Utah. Thus he decided to send out

an armed escort, both to protect the new appointees and to establish a "military district," -- that is, a new

fort in Utah, (like Fort Laramie in Wyoming and Fort Leavenworth in Kansas).

All of this was fully within Buchanan's powers as President. However, the Utahans viewed the approaching

troops as a death squad, send out to execute Brigham Young and the other LDS leaders -- to crush the

LDS religion, and turn Utah unto another Kansas.

All of which suddenly escalated through the roof, at the beginning of December, when Buchanan increased

the troop levels from those needed for an escort and an army fort, to the level needed for an army of

occupation.

The US people might have objected at that point -- but word of the Mountain Meadows massacre and

several other smaller Utah massacres and murders were at that very moment filling the eastern

newspapers with anti-Brigham rhetoric. Thus, the "escort" became an "occupation force" overnight.

UD

Agian where other govenors given such escorts to their new post?

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Agian where other govenors given such escorts to their new post?

By that time California and Oregon had become states of the Union and had their governors elected

locally. If I recall correctly, the other western area was still unorganized territory, and had no governors

-- that left the "near west," like Minnesota, Nebraska and Kansas with appointed governors. I forget

what the case was for Washington/Idaho at the time.

In the case of Kansas, the US Army had Fort Leavenworth in place, and governors there could rely on

protection from the federal troops. Thus, there was no need to provide escorts for governors, until,

perhaps New Mexico and Nevada were organized as separate territories.

That left Utah in a unique position --- far from federal protection of any substance, and accessable only

via wagon-routes where there was a constant danger from Indians and "border ruffians." The new Utah

Governor could not simply get into his carriage and start driving his family out to Utah. The Mormon

Secretary of State (Almon Babbit) had tried to do just that and his party were murdered on the Iowa plains.

So, there was a need for at least a small armed escort -- probably 100 troopers would have been enough

to get Cumming and the other new officials safely to Utah and safely housed and protected there. But

President Buchanan wanted to establish a military presence on the Oregon Trail west of Fort Laramie.

The likely place for this was Fort Hall (which then was not much of a fort at all, with no permanent troops).

However, after the "Utah War" was over, the new fort was temporarily established in the unlikely spot

west of Utah Lake, and called "Camp Floyd."

Had Brigham not resisted the initial "escort" and fort troops sent out by Buchanan, there never would

have been a need for Camp Floyd, and the new fort would probably been set up at Fort Hall or Boise,

or some other place, away from the main Mormon population.

But, things turned out differently --- and MMM was part of the reason.

UD

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The Judge was no angel -- probably typical of the sort who would agree to go "out west" in those days.

None of which means that his reports of life among the Mormons consisted of nothing but lies.

There are plenty of mentions among the Mormons themselves, that they did not want "outsider" judges

who had no sympathy with the way things were done in Utah.

So, take the best, most even-handed judge you could possibly find, and send him to a federal appointment

out in Utah, and he was prone to spit tobacco on Brigham's freshly-polished floor, call plural wives "hos,"

and say that Joseph Smith was the durndest fraud since Simon Magus.

All of that, even if this good judge gave not a whit for the Mormon religion, one way or another -- but

was simply trying to run the judicial system properly.

The "Deseret News" was widely quoted in the east --- which is to say that eastern editors excerpted the

wildest rhetoric of "The Reformation" from its original context, and played Sandra Tanner with their

bold-type quotes. Jeddy Grant was well known in the columns of the "New York Herald," for exanple.

The size of a squad, a platoon, a brigade and a regiment varied, depending upon whether we are

talking 1850 or 1860, whether we are talking infantry, artillery, cavalry, or support troops. Best advice

is to do web searches for examples of the composition fo those military units at various periods.

At any rate -- to begin with -- probably less than 2500 military men were on their way to Utah, mainly

sent to function as an escort for the newly-appointed federal officials, which included Young's replacement.

Young's response was to say that his replacement had not yet arrived to replace him as Governor, and

so he was using his powers as Governor to prevent the new replacement from ever arriving in Utah.

Did he? Where and when did he say this? CFR that Brigham was ever properly notified that he had been replaced.

Col. Kane's visit softened Brigham's stance a little -- and he said he would permit the replacement officers to enter Utah without their escort --- a death sentence, given the circumstances, I believe.

Do you? I don't. Do you have any basis at all for that belief? I challenge it outright. I put it to you that it is an accusation without any grounds.

Then Young got word that many times more federal dragoons were to be sent out to Utah -- something I doubt he thought possible, given the 1857 financial crisis. Congress would never fund such madness.

Then along came the reports of the Fancher massacre, Indian warrior massings, and angry editorials

directed to Buchanan from all the newspapers in the nation, save two (Deseret News and NY Tribune) --

Without Brigham's declaraction of independence, and without Mountain Meadows, I doubt that Congress

would have funded one additional regiment, much less have added five more Utah Expedition regiments.

CFR on "Brigham's declaration of independence." I have no reason to even suspect that such a document ever existed. Do you?

Regards,

Pahoran

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Did he? Where and when did he say this? CFR that Brigham was ever properly notified

that he had been replaced.

He knew his term of office was drawing to a close and he knew that Buchanan was not his political ally.

An honorable man would have tendered his resignation upon the inaguration of the new President and

would have thenceforth continued temporarily in his duties, only at the President's pleasure. That is the

way I read the political history of the times. If you have examples of governors acting differently, I'd

be happy to read them.

Brigham Young was not without his legal counsel, of course, and he knew he could continue in his

duties until properly retired from office. But what would have notice of an immediare dismissal from

Buchanan have accomplished? With no replacement yet in Salt Lake City, to take over, the Territory's

Lieut. Gov. would have become acting Governor (assuming Young obeyed the dismissal) and so the

reins of the Terriorial Government would have remained under Young's implicit control, if not his

explicit control.

No -- Cumming's appointment was to become active upon his arrival in Utah. The Territory could not

be left without a chief executive for the several weeks' time needed to get the replacement to Utah.

So, what was Young's response, and how/when did the government officials in Washington, D.C.

learn of that response. The publication there, in the "paper of record," read as follows:

November 20, 1857.

THE MORMON TREASON.

_____

Subjoined is the Letter and Proclamation of Brigham Young, alluded to in the last number of our paper:

GOVERNOR'S OFFICE, UTAH TERITORY,

Great Salt Lake City, September 29, 1857.

To the Officer Commanding the Forces now Invading Utah Territory:

SIR: By reference to the act of Congress passed September 9, 1850, organizing the Territory of Utah, [published in a copy of the laws of Utah, herewith forwarded, pp. 146-147], you will find the following: --

"Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the executive power and authority in and over said Territory of Utah shall be vested in a governor, who shall hold his office for four years, and until his successor shall be appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by the President of the United States. The governor shall reside within said Territory, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia thereof," &c.

I am still the Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs for this Territory, no successor having been appointed and qualified, as provided by law, nor have I been removed by the President of the United States. By virtue of the authority thus vested in me, I have issued, and forwarded you a copy of my proclamation forbidding the entrance of armed forces into this Territory. This you have disregarded. I now further direct that you retire forthwith from the Territory, by the same route you entered. Should you deem this impracticable, and prefer to remain until spring in the vicinity of your present encampment -- Black's Fork on Green River -- you can do so in peace and unmolested, on condition that you deposit your arms and ammunition with Lewis Robinson, Quartermaster General of the Territory, and leave in the spring, as soon as the condition of the roads will permit you to march; and, should you fall short of provisions, they can be furnished you, upon making the proper applications therefor.

General D. H. Wells will forward this, and receive any communication you may have to make. Very respectfully,

BRIGHAM YOUNG,

Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs, [utah Territory].

PROCLAMATION OF THE MORMON CHIEF.

The following is the Proclamation referred to by Brigham Young:

Proclamation by the Governor.

CITIZENS OF UTAH: We are invaded by a hostile force, who are evidently assailing us to accomplish our overthrow and destruction. For the last twenty-five years we have trusted officials of the Government, from constables and justices to Judges, governors, and presidents, only to be scorned, held in derision, insulted and betrayed. Our houses have been plundered and then burnt, our fields laid waste, our principal men butchered while under the pledged faith of the Government for their safety, and our families driven from their homes to find that shelter in the barren wilderness and that protection among hostile savages which were denied them in the boasted abodes of christianity and civilization.

The Constitution of our common country guarantees unto us all that we do now or ever claimed. If the constitutional rights, which pertain unto us as American citizens, were extended to Utah, according to the spirit and meaning thereof, and fairly and impartially administered, it is all that we could ask, all that we have ever asked.

Our opponents have availed themselves of prejudice existing against us, because of our religious faith, to send out a formidable host to accomplish our destruction. We have had no privilege, no opportunity of defending ourselves from the false, foul and unjust aspersions against us before the nation. The government has not condescended to cause an investigating committee or other person to be sent to inquire into and ascertain the truth, as is customary in such cases. We know those aspersions to be false, but that avails us nothing. We are condemned unheard, and forced to an issue with an armed mercenary mob, which has been sent against us at the instigation of anonymous letter writers, ashamed to father the base, slanderous falsehoods which they have given to the public; of corrupt officials who have brought false accusations against us to screen themselves in their own infamy, and of hireling priests and howling editors, who prostitute the truth for filthy lucres' sake.

The issue which has. been thus forced upon us compels us to resort to the great first law of self-preservation, and stand in our own defence; a right guaranteed unto us by the genius of the institutions of our country, and upon which the government is based. Our duty to our families requires us not to tamely submit to be driven and slain without an attempt to preserve ourselves. Our duty to our country, our holy religion, our God, to freedom and liberty, requires that we should not quietly stand and see these fetters, forging around us which are calculated to enslave and bring us into subjection to an unlawful military despotism, such as can only emanate in a country of constitutional law, from usurpation, tyranny and oppression.

Therefore, I, Brigham Young, Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territory of Utah, in the name of the people of the United Siates, in the Territory of Utah, forbid --

First, all armed forces of every description from coming into this Territory, under any pretence whatever.

Second, that all the forces in said Territory hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's notice to repel any and all such invasion.

Third, martial law is hereby declared to exist in this Territory from and after the publication of this proclamation, and no person shall be allowed to pass or repass into or through or from this Territory without a permit from the proper officer.

{ L. S.} Given under my hand and seal at Great Salt Lake City, Territory of Utah, this fifteenth day of September, A. D. eighteen hundred and fifty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America, the eighty-second.

BRIGHAM YOUNG.

Note 1: Brigham Young's invocation of his supposed powers as Governor of Utah Territory, against the officers of the very Government that had given him his appointment, can only be characterized as bizzare. President Buchanan's decision to have him replaced in his office must have reached Brigham Young by the early summer of 1857 -- and news of his replacement's identity (Alfred Cumming) must also have reached Utah well before the leaders there published this strange "proclamation." Cumming was evidently chosen in May and by July President Buchanan had appointed him to fill out the remainder of Young's term. BY the time Cumming was approaching Utah Territory (in company with the same troops Brigham Young was prohibiting entrance), he had been re-appointed to fill a full term in office as Young's successor. The fact that Young had not yet formally "been removed by the President," was a mere formality. Any honorable public officiak might have been expected to continue in the exercise of his duties until the replacement arrived on the scene. But Young's "proclamation" had the effect of forbidding Mr. Cumming (and the other new territorial officials with him) entrance into Utah. Under the circumstances, those new officials could not have completed their journey to Salt Lake City without a substantial armed escort.

Note 2: The first elements of the new territorial officials' armed escort left Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in mid-July. Before that month was over, the old territorial officials knew that theor days in office were numbered, and that troops of the U.S. Army were on the road across the plains to Utah. Brigham Young declared martial law in the Territory on Aug. 5, 1857, and prohibited any federal forces from entering his domains. For some reason the Utah officials found this announcement insufficuient for their purposes, and at the end of August, Gen. Daniel H. Wells was writing a second martial law order. Release of this second document was delayed until after the Utahans had consulted with the army's visiting assistant Quartermaster, Capt. Stewart Van Vliet, in mid-September. Thus, although persons in Utah knew of the impending proclamation, it took outsiders by surprise and they generally viewed it as a declaration of Mormon independence.

Note 3: The only plausible reason for the proclamation (other than its practical results within Utah), is that it was meant to divide and confuse the non-Utahan politicians and governmental leaders, at a time when the Utah Expedition could still be recalled to Kansas and negotiations with Buchanan might yet result in an agreement to keep the Mormons in office in the Territory. If that was Brigham Young's basic intent, he made a gross miscalculation of American resolve. Word of the Mountain Meadows massacre and the massing of Utahan armed forces reached the eastern states almost exactly at the same time that Young's proclamation was receiving public attention in the popular press. While none of these news items alone was the direct cause of Buchanan's strengthening the expeditionary force, they all contributed to his support in promulgating that unexpected and very costly decision. In his notable 1990 historical study, America in 1857, Kenneth M. Stampp cites a caustic Oct. 27th editorial in the San Francisco Evening Bulletin, as an example of the press's angry reaction to the Utah massacre. Such irrate editorials were just beginning to land on Buchannan's desk at the end of November -- and Stampp remarks, "In December, Buchanan asked Congress for more troops." The Mormon organ in Salt Lake City, the Deseret news gave only a brief mention to editorials such as that published by the Bulletin, but outside of Utah popular opinion was turning heavily against the recalcitrant Mormon leaders. In his 1974 study of contemporary reporting, To Utah With the Dragoons," Harold D. Langley says "Reports of this... massacre, aroused the gentiles and produced some popular support for the President's plan to crush the Mormon uprising with a strong military force."

http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/MA/dnatint3.htm#112057

Do you? I don't. Do you have any basis at all for that belief? I challenge it outright.

I put it to you that it is an accusation without any grounds.

Based upon how previous federal officials had fared in Utah -- based upon the many murders reported

in the territory at that period -- based upon the fact that the hostile Indians along the route were

mainly Utah's allies -- based upon the Utahans' attacks upon federal supply trains -- and based upon

the rhetoric I read in the "Desert News" of that period, I think it safe to assume that the federal

appointees, riding from Fort Laramie to Salt Lake City, essentially unarmed and with no escort, would

have been taking their lives in their hands -- just as Elder Almon Babbit did, when he attempted the

same journey and was murdered in the plains at roughly the same time.

CFR on "Brigham's declaration of independence." I have no reason to even suspect that such a document ever existed. Do you?

Regards,

Pahoran

See above --

UD

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