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David Bokovoy

Adam as a Divine King

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Hey to get this a little more on topic with Adam as king, as David has given us an interesting Mesopotamian note, I also found this in Nibley's The Ancient State, (p. 18)which is ALWAYS an astonishing read. I have read it many times, and it continues to be one of my very favorite books of all time......... I think the ideas here tie in well with the theme of Adam as king, as well as gardner, that is care-taker of the animals......... most interesting! Could these parks be reminiscent of the original Garden? Tha's why I highlighted the sections...... notice also that Father Adam is linked or grouped with Ninurta, Orpheus, Yima, etc.

The ways of the hunting nobility with all their social and political implications have been traced back to the great hunting parks of Asiatic monarchs.

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I have since been re-reading Nibley's Mesage of the Joseph Smith Papyri (pp. 133-134) and found yet again, another application of this intriguing idea which David B. has brought up about Adam being king..........

Since this business of launching men into eternity must begin with a repetition of the creation, a new life (Goyon, p. 65), all the greatest creator-gods are understandably present on the scene. As in the story of the Foredoomed Prince, any deity not invited to contribute could cause real trouble! When Re comes down he is Atum, as we have seen, while Amon and Ptah together form the body of man and place breath in his body. Whose body?

That can be complicated too, but the preferred candidate is Atum, by far the most human of the four: "I am Ptah, I have opened thy mouth. ... Thy body is the body of Atum eternally ..." (Lefebure, An. Serv., 20:230).

"Thou arisest with thy father Atum," the dead king is told; "thou art raised up with thy father Atum ..." (Spiegel, An. Serv., 53:370). Atum as the rising and the setting sun, "Re on the horizon," "Re coming down, Atum in the evening" is necessarily the red sun as it passes between the upper and the lower worlds. Atum wears the red crown as "the King comes out of Buto, red (dshr) as the flame" (Zandee, ZA, 99:54, C.T. I, 386ff, P.T. 697 a.d.).

This certainly suggests the well-known meaning of Adam as "red." In a Coffin Text the initiate describes himself as vindicator of his father Re at the dawn, i.e., as Re-Atum, but specifically "in my name of Admw," where the Semitic form of the name with nominative ending is used (C.T. 148, II, 224).

Ptah is creator pure and simple, the great god of Memphis; he always retains that as his one mark and calling. In the Shabako drama it is Ptah who does the creating, and the one whom he creates is Atum

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And still yet again, I find other interesting thoughts on Adam as King in Nibley's Message of Joseph Smith Papyri, pp. 174f.....

So, as the god makes his circuit at the coronation (New Year, Creation), taking possession of the land in the manner of Adam exploring the garden, he embraces the Lady, whereupon "life springs up out of nothing," the earth bringing forth spontaneously (ibid., 2:2-5; 3:16, 42, etc.). For "the Lord of the cattle who tends the animals and cares for their stalls in the shadow of the Sycamore" is "also in charge of the procreation of the human race ..." (Otto, Gott u. Mensch, p. 64);

in the temple rites his part is enacted by the King, in the role of the first man, and the imagery is, as Otto puts it, more "idyllic than divine and creative," "showing him as a human being in a romantic situation" (ibid., 65-66).

He does all to please the Lady, working away as "the caretaker and preserver of Nature ... who causes the garden-land to come into being ... and causes the trees to bloom"; he is, according to an inscription from Denderah, "The King upon his throne as the benevolent Ruler, possessing rich garden-land, causing the trees to rejuvenate themselves, as he brings bouquets to please the countenance of the Lady. He is the life-power (Ka) who aids the plants to grow" (Otto, Gott u. Mensch, p. 64, Denderah II, 25).

At the Festival of the Valley, "the glorious lady rests with uncovered face," awaiting the arrival of her consort (Drioton, Jour et Nuit, 895-97); the rites end with a great acclamation of the divine pair: "The Mother comes fair of face, to mix the drinks, Amon comes rejoicing ... Hail Mother, Lady of Heaven, great Queen of all the earth. Amon and Nut, Father and Mother, give understanding and strength to the heart of the Ka of NN forever!"

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However, God

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Hello CS,

So, they are true as he wills. I'm sure people have speculated on what, exactly, the figurative trees were. Are there any credible clues that come out of legend? C.S.

Thanks for the good questions. Personally, I think that the trees are trees. I believe that the story is figurative and that many theological and cultural motifs drive the account. For example, man (adam) is created out of the ground (adamah), but the woman (ishah) is created out of the man (ish).

This information illustrates that the pun drives the narrative. The author depicted woman coming out of man because of the Hebrew words ishah (woman) and ish (man). In turn, the author depicts man coming out of the earth because the Hebrew word for man is (adam) and the Hebrew word for ground is (adamah).

As I have suggested, the story of Eden in the Bible refers to sexuality gained and immortality lost. Sexual metaphors of fruit and gardens are ubiquitous in Near Eastern love poetry; see J. Atkins, Sex in Literature, vol. III (London: 1978): 178, 222.

Ancient Mesopotamian authors regularly incorporated these metaphors to create erotic motifs:

Vigorously he sprouted, vigorously he sprouted and sprouted,

Watered it- it being lettuce!

In his black garden of the desert bearing much yield did my darling of his mother,

My barley stalk full of allure in its farrow, water it- water lettuce,

Did my one- a very apple tree bearing fruit at the top- water it- it being a garden!

(As cited in T. Jacobsen, Harps that Once: Sumerian Poetry in Translation (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987): 94).

Do not dig a [canal]

Do not plough [a field], let me be your field.

Farmer, do not search for a wet place,

My precious sweet, let me be your wet place.

Let the ditch (?) be your farrow,

let me be your canal,

Let our little apples be your desire!

(As cited in Leick, Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature, 149-150).

The highly sexual connotation of gardens and fruit was not unknown to the author of the biblical Song of Songs 4:12-13a:

A garden locked is my sister,

my bride,

a garden locked, a fountain


Your channel is an orchard of pomegranates

with all choicest fruits

Through its portrayal of the woman as temptress, the Genesis story of Adam and Eve in the garden seems to relate to tablet VI of the Epic of Gilgamesh in which Ishtar, as woman, specifically enticed the king with the imperative:

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I just found that my good friend and scholar, Andrei Orlov has written a bit about the Kingship of Adam, that is very interesting! Here are some ideas of his and how kingship ties into Enoch (Orlov's specialty)

Here is the website to read his full materials on Enoch. It is very stimulating!


2 Enoch 30:12 describes Adam as the king of the earth.22 This honorable role in 2

Enoch, as in the Genesis account, represents not merely an impressive metaphor but

presupposes specific duties which demonstrate Adam's royal status. Most of these

activities have biblical roots.23 From 2 Enoch 58:3, we learn that the Lord appointed

Adam over

...everything [as king], and he subjected everything to him in subservience under his hand, both

the dumb and the deaf, to be commanded and for submission and for every servitude. So also to every

human being. The Lord created mankind to be the lord of all his possessions.24

21 It should be noted that the Adamic tradition is not the only "building material" used in 2 Enoch

in order to create the new, celestial image of Enoch. There is also a strong presence of the traditions about

the elevated Moses which help to enhance Enoch's new identity in various theophanic settings throughout

the text. On the Mosaic traditions in 2 Enoch see, A. Orlov, "Ex 33 on God's Face: A Lesson from the

Enochic Tradition," Seminar Papers 39, Society of Biblical Literature Annual Meeting 2000 (Atlanta:

Society of Biblical Literature, 2000) 130-147; idem, "The Face as the Heavenly Counterpart of the

Visionary in the Slavonic Ladder of Jacob," Studies in Scripture in Early Judaism and Christianity 9 (ed.

C.A. Evans; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001) (forthcoming).

22 Slav. tsar' zemli. M.I Sokolov, "Materialy i zametki po starinnoj slavjanskoj literature. Vypusk

tretij, VII. Slavjanskaja Kniga Enoha Pravednogo. Teksty, latinskij perevod i izsledovanie. Posmertnyj trud

avtora prigotovil k izdaniju M. Speranskij," COIDR 4 (1910) 1.30.

23 On the connections between the Genesis account and the Adamic story of 2 Enoch, see:

J.T.A.G.M. van Ruiten, "The Creation of Man and Woman in Early Jewish Literature," The Creation of

Man and Woman: Interpretations of the Biblical Narratives in Jewish and Christian Traditions (ed. G.P.

Luttikhuizen; Brill: Leiden, 2000) 34-62.

24 Andersen, 1.184.


This description of Adam's duties corresponds to the account found in Gen 1:26-

30 where God gives Adam dominion over "everything that has the breath of life."

As in Gen 2:19-20, one of the important functions of the new appointed king is

the registration of all the "possessions," i.e., all the living creatures of the earth given to

his stewardship through the act of their naming. 2 Enoch 58 states that

...the Lord came down onto the earth [on account of Adam] and he inspected all his creatures

which he himself had created in the beginning of the thousand ages and then after all those he had created

Adam. And the Lord summoned all the animals of the earth and all reptiles of the earth and all the birds

that fly in the air, and he brought them all before the face of our father Adam, so that he might pronounce

names for all the quadrupeds; and [Adam] named everything that lives on the earth.25

Giving names here, just as in the Genesis account, also designates Adam's

dominion over "everything that lives on the earth." This dominion, however, as in the

Biblical account, is supervised by the Lord. The whole picture indicates that the author of

2 Enoch understands Adam's "kingship" as the management of God's property.26 It is

significant that the Slavonic apocalypse defines Adams' role as "the lord of all God's


In the Slavonic apocalypse, however, the governing role of Adam as the lord of

all God's possessions is challenged by the account of Enoch's kingship and his role as

"the manager of the arrangements on the earth." This new role of Enoch vividly recalls

the former royal status of the protoplast.

The first hint about Enoch's role as the governing power on earth comes from

chapter 39 where Enoch relates to his children the details of his encounter with the divine

anthropomorphic extent, identified in the text as the Lord's "Face." Enoch's description

provides a series of analogies in which the earthly Enoch compares his face and parts of

his body with the attributes of the Lord's face and body. At the end of his description,

Enoch delivers the following conclusion:

Frightening and dangerous it is to stand before the face of the earthly king, terrifying and very

dangerous it is, because the will of the king is death and the will of the king is life. How much more

25 Andersen, 1.185.

26 Cf. Philo, Opif. 88 "So the Creator made man after all things, as a sort of driver and pilot, to

drive and steer the things on earth, and charged him with the care of animals and plants, like a governor

subordinate to the chief and great King." Philo (trs. F.H. Colson and G.H. Whitaker; 11 vols.; Cambridge,

Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1949) 1.73. See also: J.R. Levison, Portraits of Adam in Early

Judaism: From Sirach to 2 Baruch (JSPSS, 1; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1988) 66-68.

27 Adam's designation as the second angel in 2 Enoch 30:11 also seems to point to the protoplast's

role as the viceroy of God. Cf. Philo, Opif. 148 "... and the first man was wise with a wisdom learned from

and taught by Wisdom's own lips, for he was made by divine hands; he was, moreover, a king, and it befits

a ruler to bestow titles on his several subordinates. And we may guess that the sovereignty with which that

first man was invested was a most lofty one, seeing that God had fashioned him with the utmost care and

deemed him worthy of the second place, making him His own viceroy and the lord of all others." Philo (trs.

F.H. Colson and G.H. Whitaker; 11 vols.; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1949)

1.117. It is also important that in 2 Enoch the realm of Adam's dominion is designated as another world:

"And the devil understood how I wished to create another world, so that everything could be subjected to

Adam on the earth, to rule and reign over it." 2 Enoch 31:3. Andersen, 1.154.


terrifying [and dangerous] it is stand before the face of the King of earthly kings and of the heavenly

armies...Who can endure that endless misery?28

In the light of the overall logic of the patriarch's speech, in which the "attributes"

of the Lord have been compared with Enoch's "attributes," it becomes clear that the

earthly king of the story is Enoch himself. This interpretation is "confirmed" by the

manuscripts of the shorter recension which directly identify Enoch as the earthly king:

And now my children, listen to the discourses of an earthly king. It is dangerous and perilous to

stand before the face of the earthly king, 29 terrifying [and very perilous] it is...30

The designation of Enoch as the royal/governing power on earth is not confined

solely to the passage found in chapter 39. 2 Enoch 46:1-2 (the longer recension) also

recounts the tradition about Enoch as the earthly king. There again Enoch refers to his

royal status indirectly in third person.31

The significant feature of Enoch's designation as the earthly king in the Slavonic

apocalypse is that this text understands Enoch not as one of the earthly kings, but as the

king of the earth who, in a manner similar to the protoplast, supervises all arrangements

on the earth. This exclusive role is hinted at 2 Enoch 64, which depicts the patriarch's

address to the princes of the people as they prostrate themselves before him. This role is

also intimated in chapter 43 of the shorter recension and a similar passage from 2 Enoch

found in the Slavonic collection the "Just Balance" (Slav. "Merilo Pravednoe"), where

Enoch is described as the manager of the earth:

...and behold my children, I am the manager of the arrangements on earth,32 I wrote (them) down.

and the whole year I combined and the hours of the day. And the hours I measured: and I wrote down every

seed on earth. And I compared every measure and the just balance I measured. And I wrote (them) down,

just as the Lord commanded ...33

It should be noted that the definition of Enoch as the king is a unique motif34 in

early Enochic materials. In 1 Enoch, Jubilees, and the Book of Giants, the patriarch is

often described as an intercessor, a visionary, a scribe, an expert in secrets, but never

28 2 Enoch 39:8 (the longer recension). Andersen, 1.164.

29 Slav. tsar' zemnoi. M.I Sokolov, "Materialy i zametki po starinnoj slavjanskoj literature. Vypusk

tretij, VII. Slavjanskaja Kniga Enoha Pravednogo. Teksty, latinskij perevod i izsledovanie. Posmertnyj trud

avtora prigotovil k izdaniju M. Speranskij," COIDR 4 (1910) 1.38; 1.94.

302 Enoch 39:8. Andersen, 1.165.

31 "Listen, my people, and give heed to the utterance of my lips! If to an earthly king someone

should bring some kinds of gifts, if he is thinking treachery in his heart, and the king perceives it, will he

not be angry with him?" Andersen, 1.172.

32 The title can also be translated as the Governor of the earth. Some manuscripts use Slavonic

words kormstvuemaa or krymstvuemaja. These Slavonic terms are related to the Greek word xube&rnhsij

or the Latin gubernatio. Cf. I.I. Sreznevskij, Slovar' drevnerusskogo jazyka (3 vols.; Moscow: Kniga, 1989)

I (II) 1410. The manuscript of the "Just Balance" uses the word pravlemaja. Cf. Tihomirov, Merilo

Pravednoe po rukopisi XIV veka (Moscow: AN SSSR) 71. F. Andersen translates the term as "manager" -

"I am the manager of the arrangements on earth..." Andersen, 1.217.

33 Andersen, 1.217.

34 I am indebted to Professor James Vanderkam for this clarification.


directly as a king.35 It, therefore, becomes apparent that the royal/governing functions of

Enoch are construed in the Slavonic apocalypse in the context of its polemical response

to the Adamic tradition; these functions serve as a counterpart to the royal status of the

protoplast. It is not therefore coincidental that in this situation some duties of Adam in his

office of the king of the earth are also transferred to the new occupant of this office, the

seventh antediluvian patriarch. In chapters 39 and 43, Enoch's introductions as the king

and the manager of the earth are followed with lengthy accounts of Enoch's activities

involving measuring everything on earth. Right after Enoch is defined as the earthly king

in 2 Enoch 39, the patriarch tells his children:

...And everything that is nourished on the earth I have investigated and written down, and every

seed, sown and not sown, which grows from earth, and all the garden plants, and all the grasses, and all the

flowers, and their delightful fragrances and their names...

I measured all the earth, and its mountains and hills and fields and woods and stones and rivers,

and everything that exist...36

It appears that the functions of Enoch in his role as the king/manager of the earth

include, similarly to the role of Adam, the duty of registering the created order. Like

Adam who "named" everything that lives on the earth Enoch in his turn writes down

"every seed on the earth." 37

It is important that Enoch's "stewardship" over the created order, akin to Adam's

duties, also includes the obligation to protect and care for the animals. In 2 Enoch 58-59,

the protoplast's responsibilities pertaining to the animals are transferred to the seventh

antediluvian patriarch and his descendants.

It is noteworthy that both accounts, the story of Adam's naming of animals and

Enoch's instructions to his children about the protection of animals, are located in the

35 Although Enoch's role as the governing power on earth is unknown in the early Enochic

materials, it does not mean that such designation of Enoch in the Slavonic apocalypse is a foreign

interpolation invented by the Greek or Slavic scribes. It appears that the depiction of Enoch as the

governing power on earth represents an important step in shaping the new image of Enoch as the supreme

angel elevated above the angelic world. The role of Enoch as the king/manager of earth in 2 Enoch is,

therefore, directly connected with the later Metatron title, the "Prince of the world," found in the Merkabah

literature and on the incantation bowls from Babylonia. Cf. Alexander, 3 Enoch, 1.229, 1.243; C.H.

Gordon, "Aramaic and Mandaic Magical Bowls" ArOr 9 (1937) 94-95. The Merkabah tradition stresses the

role of Enoch-Metatron as the governing power over the nations, kingdoms, and rulers on earth. Chapter 30

of 3 Enoch alludes to the role of Metatron as the Prince of the world, the leader of seventy-two princes of

kingdoms in the world who speaks (pleads) in favor of the world before the Holy One... every day at the

hour when the book is opened in which every deed in the world is recorded. The depiction of Metatron as

the "Prince of the world" in 3 Enoch reveals several similarities to the royal status of Enoch in the Slavonic

apocalypse. One of them is that in 2 Enoch 64:1 the patriarch delivers his address "to his sons and to the

princes of the people." The reference to the princes of the people is intriguing since in 3 Enoch 30 Metatron

is described as the leader of seventy-two princes of the kingdoms of the world. The second important

similarity is that in both texts the role of Enoch/Metatron as the governing power on earth is tied to his

duties as the witness of the divine judgment. Both accounts, therefore, contain references to Enoch's

writings representing the record of all the deeds of every person.

36 Andersen, 1.164-166. In chapter 43, the same picture can be observed. Enoch's measuring

activities follow his definition as the governor/manager of the earth.

37 It should be noted that this role of Enoch as the measurer of the earthly things is unknown in the

early Enochic booklets of 1 Enoch where Enoch's functions as the heavenly scribe are limited to the

meteorological, calendarical, and astronomical matters.


same chapter of the Slavonic apocalypse. 2 Enoch 58 depicts the Lord summoning all

creatures of the earth and bringing them before Adam that the first human might name

them. This story then continues with Enoch's instructions to his children about the special

care for animals whose souls will testify against human beings at the great judgment if

they treat them unjustly. This account, which substitutes one steward of God's earthly

creatures for another, fits perfectly into the pattern of the Adamic polemics found in the

Slavonic apocalypse.

In Weltweisheit, Menschheitsethik, Urkult, C. B

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I overdid all that posting, and that's what killed this thread isn't it....... :P

Dang me!

Well, the good news is, I have recently purchased a very intriguing book by Schwartz, "The Tree of Souls," (2004) about Jewish Mythology, and in the intro., he says there are Jewish legends that Adam was the king of the earth, and that divine kingship began with him in Creation, and has been handed down, and hence David got his authority from Adam, who got it from God. Something like that. I am just making a note of it. Ever since David brought this subject up, it keeps cropping up for me also............. kinda interesting how things like that work.

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Well, the good news is, I have recently purchased a very intriguing book by Schwartz, "The Tree of Souls," (2004) about Jewish Mythology,

Great book, isn't it? You might want to look at Louis Ginzberg as well. Often, the Midrash, et al has some great explanations.

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Yes! I have found Ginzberg in paperback now, and I just have to break down and buy him. I know many serious scholars have utilized Ginzberg extensively. I have used him somewhat in my research, but I really do need my own set of his work.......

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