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About bcuzbcuz

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    Separates Water & Dry Land
  • Birthday 11/01/1945

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  1. Peopling of the Americas by Boat, Not Land

    I found a rubber ducky in my bathtub. Does that count?
  2. Peopling of the Americas by Boat, Not Land

    A very interesting article. Thank you. I don’t have the answers to many of the questions implied in your post. I know too little about the Inuit and pre-Inuit cultures that stretch from Northern Alaska, across the Northwest territories of Canada and even to Greenland. There were obviously different surges of peoples that displaced earlier groups, as seen by the changes in boat making and clothing that vary by districts. Those with an ear for it can hear not only the dialects but basic language differences. Archeological digs are in their infancy. I do know about the populations that pushed down the Pacific northwest coast from the peoples of Alaska, the panhandle, down the fjords of BC, Vancouver Island and the northern tip of coastal Washington. The tribes established along the coast do not share common stories of origins. They do not consider lines of ancestry linking their various cultures and languages as coming from common ground. DNA evidence links them all, but they themselves do not have traditions that call upon such links The Tlingit, Tshimsian and Haida Gwai peoples have similar environments. But their territories were fiercely fought over, with tribes taking slaves from the conquered. The language links that can be demonstrated by experts are not acknowledged through tribal traditions nor maternal lineages. The Haida had large ocean going canoes. We know ths from stories even though the canoes no longer exist. Archeological finds of bone tools, like halibut hooks are ample witnesses to canoes that could cope with ocean travel. But the Gitksan are river people and do not have the same tools. Further down the coast, the Kwakiatul and Bella Coola populations, that grew along the fjords and islands of the Pacific coast have no current tales of their ancestry coming by boat. It seems reasonable that boats were involved but it is mere conjecture without any proof. The Nuu-Chah-Nulth of Vancouver Island have whaling tools that also bespeak sea going canoes. The shafts of their harpoons have withered away but the bone detachable tips persist, in their hundreds. The Coast Salish have traditions of being most capable of making fish weirs and have left petroglyph records in stone of their ancient traditions but nothing that denotes large sea going canoes The Makah from the northern tip of Washington state do have sea going traditions. They still take to sea for their annual whale hunts. There is nothing to indicate that the tribes and bands that occupy the northwest coast moved rapidly down the coast from their start in Alaska. A common link is, however, their food resources. The kelp forests that stretch all the way down to Monterey in California and beyond were and are common. DNA from a find in Washington indicates population from around 8000 BCE
  3. Peopling of the Americas by Boat, Not Land

    I’ll rejoin this discussion with a new article. Your critique to my first post was that I went off the rails. That’s just because I have extensive first hand experience from the northern Pacific kelp forest and you apparently have none. Here’s a second look at why the landbridge model seems to have missed the mark. Pay particular attention to why carbon 14 dating has given a false positive. And how using Beryllium-10 dating has opened new understanding of how the ice plate of the last ice age disappeared and that new plant growth was impeded in the interior corridor. Nothing in these articles gives an iota of support for the idea of people coming to the Americas by boats. Boats probably played a role in how populations moved down the north Pacific coast, but even that is mere conjecture. The richness in resources of the Pacific coast continue to support populations in modern time. Western Canada's ice age melt offers preview for modern climate change Study adds to evidence that first Americans didn't pass through B.C. interior By Emily Chung, CBC News Posted: Nov 09, 2017 2:00 PM ET Last Updated: Nov 10, 2017 3:47 PM ET This 2009 photo released by Extreme Ice Survey shows Birthday Canyon in Greenland during the filming of Chasing Ice.' New findings about the melting of a western Canadian ice sheet at the end of the ice age may offer a preview of what's in store for Greenland's ice sheet as it melts from human-caused climate change. (James Balog/Extreme Ice Survey/Associated Press) Emily Chung Science and Technology Writer Emily Chung covers science and technology for CBC News. She has previously worked as a digital journalist for CBC Ottawa and as an occasional producer at CBC's Quirks & Quarks. She has a Ph.D. in chemistry. Related Stories Canadian evidence reroutes theory on how humans populated North America Aboriginal people may have lived on Beringia for millenia The ice sheet that covered much of Western Canada at the end of the last ice age melted earlier and more quickly than scientists thought, a new study suggests. The findings bolster evidence that the melting of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet could have boosted sea levels by up to three metres. The new research, which uncovers great detail about how the Cordilleran Ice Sheet melted and fell to pieces, could also provide a preview of what to expect as Greenland melts due to human-caused climate change. And it adds to evidence that the first humans in North America did not travel through central B.C. as they moved south from the Bering Peninsula around 14,000 years ago. Boulder 'brownies' Brian Menounos, the Canadian researcher who led the study, spent 10 years helicoptering into remote mountaintops in B.C., the Yukon and the Northwest Territories with his team, then hammering, chiselling, and sawing rectangular rock "brownies" from huge boulders to take back to the lab. The boulders were located in moraines – huge piles of rock and debris left behind by melting glaciers that scientists use to understand past climate change. "If you want to understand future and present day, then it's often good to look at the past," said Menounos, a geography professor at the University of Northern British Columbia who holds a Canada Research Chair in glacier change. Brian Menounos and his team hammered, chiselled and sawed 76 rectangular rock 'brownies' (with M&Ms and Lego stormtrooper for scale) from huge boulders on mountaintops to take back to the lab for analysis. (Brian Menounos/UNBC) Understanding how the Cordilleran ice sheet melted is particularly useful because it's very similar to the present-day ice sheet that's melting in Greenland. Both contain similar amounts of ice, have similar mountainous topography underneath, and feed meltwater directly into the ocean, Menounos and his colleagues note in a new paper published today in the journal Science. That means the Cordilleran ice sheet melt could show us what impacts we can expect in the future as the Greenland ice sheet warms and liquefies. Traditionally, scientists have used carbon-14 dating to estimate the ages of moraines in lower-lying areas. That kind of dating suggested that the Cordilleran ice sheet still covered much of Western Canada around 12,500 years ago. Carbon dating can't be used in high alpine areas, because the carbon comes from plant and animal material, and there isn't much of that on remote mountaintops. Chemical clocks So Menounos and his team used a different chemical clock — beryllium-10, which is found in quartz. Like carbon-14, it's radioactive and is formed when cosmic rays from deep space interact with atoms on Earth — nitrogen in the atmosphere in the case of carbon-14, and oxygen in rocks in the case of beryllium-10. Because a layer of ice protects surfaces from cosmic rays, the amount of beryllium 10 in rocks shows when surfaces were ice-free and exposed. Researchers collected rock samples from moraine boulders, extracted quartz from them and determined the amount of rare isotopes in them. That shows how long the rocks have been exposed to the surface since their protective ice covering melted. (Brian Menounos/UNBC) Beryliium-10 dating of 76 boulder brownies from 26 sites showed that high alpine areas in Western Canada were ice free as early as 14,000 years ago — 1,500 earlier than carbon-14 dating showed. That's consistent with recent modelling calculations that suggested the Cordilleran ice sheet melted very quickly over 500 years starting around 14,500 years ago, coinciding with a period when sea surface temperatures suddenly warmed about 4 C over a few thousand years(comparable to today's warming of 1 C over around 100 years so far and climbing), causing massive sea level rise. Those calculations suggest the Cordilleran ice sheet may have boosted sea levels by 2.5 to three metres. (While that sounds like a lot, it would have been only a small proportion of the huge rise in sea levels at the end of the ice age.) Why did the carbon dates suggest the melt happened so much later? Menounos thinks it's because the organic matter from plants and animals that carbon-14 relies on may not have colonized the ice-free landscape until hundreds or even thousands of years after the ice melted. Researchers take samples from a low-elevation moraine in the Northwest Territories. A new study found that remains of the Cordilleran ice sheet have remained at low elevations as late as 11,000 years ago, but had almost completely melted from higher elevations 14,000 years ago. (Chris Darvill/UNBC and University of Manchester) In addition to figuring out when the ice melted, the new study also uncovered other details of how it melted. By looking at moraines at different elevations, Menounos and his colleagues found that while the alpine ice melted quickly, large chunks of ice may have remained in valleys and other lower lying areas until 11,000 years ago, as the climate fluctuated between warmer and cooler over several thousand years. That ice would have been a barrier for any humans who might be trying to pass through central B.C. until that time, the researchers suggest. "It would be difficult to find a path," Menounos told CBC News. That adds to growing evidence that the first people in the Americas may not have travelled inland between melting ice sheets as previously believed — instead, they likely moved south from along the Pacific Coast. A map shows the locations where evidence of the first people in the Americas have been found. There is growing evidence that they travelled along the coast, not inland between melting ice sheets as previously believed. ( Reprinted with permission from Braje et al., Science 358:592) The study involved researchers from across Canada along with some from the U.S., Sweden, Norway and Switzerland. It was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, the Canadian Research Chairs Program, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, Carl Mannerfelts Fond, A. och M. Bergströms Stiftelse, and the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.
  4. Peopling of the Americas by Boat, Not Land

    It is not often, Robert, that I can fault your reasoning, but your with your OP title and your use of the authors conclusion to somehow wrangle a statement that can be construed as some support for the Americas first people coming here by boat, is nothing short of sloppy thinking. Here, from Inverse.com, using the same source article, but using quotes from one of the authors of the hypothesis is,: “If we really want to understand how humans got to America, Braje adds that archaeologists need to examine shorelines that haven’t changed dramatically in the last 20,000 years as well as look under the ocean. In 2016, archeologists announced they found evidence of pre-Clovis people by doing just that, discovering human and mastodon remains in a sinkhole 30 feet under the Aucilla River. Earlier this year, an unrelated group of archeologists found what are thought to be the earliest human remains found in the Americas in an underwater cave in Mexico, further supporting the idea that, if we want to understand how humans got here, we need to stick close to the water. “Thirty years ago, we thought we had all the answers,” says Braje. “Now, there are more questions than answers.” 'Kelp Highway' Hypothesis Rewrites History of the First Americans "Now, there are more questions than answers." I was born and raised at the west coastline of North America. I’ve spent many hours in the kelp, studying and eating from everything there, from crabs to kelp. The Haida people of Haida Gwai (Queen Charlotte Islands) developed their inital wealth from the resources amongst the kelp. The study you reference has extremely little to do with boats and a whole lot more to do about how communities could string along the ice free coast from Alaska down through BC, Washington, Oregon, etc. for tens of thousands years ago. Your implication that a coastal boat finding new resources along a coastline has something to do with boats in the BofM is sadly lacking in any correlation.
  5. How to be a tolerant parent?

    I agree that actions have consequences. Not always consequences we can foresee nor want. I did as you premised. "You're an adult. (he was 20 at the time, my step-son) Get a job, pay your share or move out in 60 days." He got a job, found an apartment and moved out. Since that time he has never spoken another word to his mother. He leaves occasions whenever our paths cross. His mother learns details of his life only through others who pass on information they know second hand. Actions do have consequences. Sometimes those consequences create hurt for more than decades.
  6. Perfect Fallibility

    You ask for a greater context, not only of the story, BUT OF HIS LIFE. Wow! Get a grip. This was only a story. Whenever I have spun a yarn and someone has caught me in yarn-spinner mode with some actual facts surrounding my story, that cast doubt, Like, " a lake trout could not possibly weigh 15 kilos" Or, "It is not possible to drive from Stockholm to Göteborg in two hours", then I quickly adjust my story and remember never to repeat that same tale for that audience again. I don't expect anyone to come with a caveat that "since you lied about the size of the trout you caught, therefore, you must have lied about you actually being my father!" Holland repeated a story he had been told. He added details like the breed and size of the dogs, that makes the story more colourful. He added details of one brother (missionary) stumbling upon another brother (prodigal), while in fact the two brothers could not have met under such circumstances. Holland stretched the truth in order to tell a story. That doesn't call for an inspection of his life.
  7. Are cureloms imaginary?

    it makes sense for anyone who has done translation work. I did it professionally for a number of years. I translated letters written in English by people who spoke Portugese as their native language, into Swedish. I also worked in the reverse, translating Swedish documents into English to be read by people who spoke Portugese. Since we were communicating regarding technical hardware for trucks (lorries) misunderstandings were rather common. We had a delay in production because a silencer for a lorry was translated as a muffler. The fault was mine because I used an North American term "muffler" (in England a hand warmer for ladies) instead of the British english term, "silencer", which to anyone with an American background envisions a gangster film. Furthermore Portugese is a language where formal and polite correspondence must follow certain forms,such as "Dear Sir", but even more floral, such as, "It is with the greatest honour that I address this issue regarding transmissions differentials,and I correspond this humbly for your perusal". While Swedish would simply say, without any inleading phrasology, "Regarding transmissions differentials communication 5:" But Joseph Smith didn't work with standard translations. Most of the time the golden plates were not even in the same room as him and he was guided by the seer stone(s) to interpret symbols, with God as a mediary. Joseph Smith translate horses when horses didn't fill the bill and he translated elephants when elephants would not have existed. So cureloms were créatures he didn't recognize.But god would have recognized them and give them a word that would later fit in place. Just show me a curelom and I'll be satisfied
  8. Are cureloms imaginary?

    useful animals in the New World included the alpaca, vicuña, chinchilla, guinea pig, llama (domesticated guanaco), tapir, agouti, capybara None of which are named in the BofM.
  9. Are cureloms imaginary?

    camel hair is coarse and probably itchy (I've tried one on but didn't like it) It was probably a sign of a poor person. Much like llama wool, it is decidedly coarser than alpaca or vicuna wool. llama wool was also considered wool for the poor. And you're right. I forgot the guanaca.
  10. Are cureloms imaginary?

    Interesting thought. But if cureloms are actually alpacas, llamas or vicunas (and yes they are different from each other) wouldn't the translation have stated those names, even if JS didn't know the differences?
  11. My (Ex) Stake President is a Woman

    I agree with every point you have made in this discussion. Apparently there are those who think gender dydphoria as a mental illness. I agree with your thought that God (church leaders/authorities) missed the whole issue when appointing and confirming this woman as a church bishop and stake president. I remember (way back when) a boy on our hockey team was suddenly redefined at puberty as a girl. It all came down to his/her being born with the outward appearances for being male and the inner plumbing to be a girl. The issue in those days was that our hockey league refused to provide facilities for a girl (changeroom and toilets) on the team and he/she was therefore cut from the team. He/she was still the best right winger we had, with a mean right handed shot. He/she wasn't confused about gender, society was/is, the church was/is. Doctrine says gender is black and white. Reality has many shades in between.
  12. Recent Survey (via Jana Reiss)

    Yes it is.......if you say the contract is between one man and one woman, one woman, one woman, one woman, one woman...ad infinitum
  13. Recent Survey (via Jana Reiss)

    700 Mormons or 700 unassigned loyalties?
  14. I read the article but it didn't give examples of the questioned asked. The questions in a poll determine the outcome. The fact that the study was carried out by a Belgium Catholic college may have influenced the questions (sort of like when cigarette companies did "scientific studies" into the dangers of cigarette smoking.) As a former TBM, now defining myself as somewhere between atheist and agnostic, I am not a good measure of "openmindedness". My former beliefs weigh too heavily into my decision making. But please, give some examples of their type of questions that permitted them to assign "openmindedness!"